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JPAIR Multidisciplinary Journal

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Title: The Ati-Atihan Festival: Its Impact to the Economy and Tourism Industry in Kalibo, Aklan
Name: CHRISTOPHER G. CALOPEZ, CHARLOTTE GAAS GILBERT LLEVA, DIANA ROSE MANECLANG & DENNIS FUSIN
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Ati-Atihan is a feast held annually in honor of the Senior Sto. Niño concluding on the third Sunday of January in the town of Kalibo, Aklan .The study aimed at assessing the economic and tourism impact of the Ati-Atihan Festival to the Municipality of Kalibo, Aklan. This descriptive study involved 120 respondents composed of residents, businessmen and local government officials who were selected using the purposive sampling method. A one-shot survey was conducted to gather pertinent data and treated using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results revealed that respondents believed that the Ati-Atihan festival had an impact on the economy of the town by bringing about the expansion and improvement of local products and in increasing the economic activity in the town. It had an impact on the tourism industry by attracting tourists both locally and internationally. However, significant differences were found concerning the impact of Ati-Atihan festival. Thus, certain recommendations were formulated for the enhancement of the celebration as well as to boost the tourism industry and the economy of the municipality.

Keywords: Ati-Atihan Festival, Tourism Impact, Economic Impact, Tourism Industry, Economic Activity
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Title: Enhancement Activities for the Day Care Centers and Development Workers
Name: MARIA NANCY Q. CADOSALES
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Day Care Centers are managed by Day Care Workers (DCWs). These teachers contribute to the total development of the early childhood learners. In this present study, it was noted during the interview and focus group discussion that the DCWs needed enhancement activities for them to carry out their teaching tasks. Exercises on letter sound were the most priority need over teaching strategies, production of instructional materials, and pedagogy. Thus, an action plan for a three-day enhancement program was proposed

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Title: Predictors of Nursing Board Examination Performance
Name: REMEDIOS T. NAVARRO, AURELIA T. VITAMOG RIZZA JOY C. TIERRA & DONNA MARIE J. GONZALEZ
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This study determines if the UNP College Admission Test (UNP CAT), Nursing Aplitude Test (NAT) and academic performance are significant predictors of the Nursing Board Examination Performance of the graduates of the University of Northern Philippines for the period 2006-2009. The descriptive-correlational method of research was employed with documentary analysis as primary tool for data gathering. The respondents consisted of the 750 Bachelor of Science in nursing graduates, who were first takers of the Nursing Board Examination. Data were analyzed through frequency, percentage and multiple regression analysis. Majority of the Nursing graduates performed at a good level in the UNP-CAT, and at a very good level in their academics. Most performed at an average passed level in the NAT, and majority, at a fair level, in the Nursing Board Examination. The UNP-CAT, NAT and academic performance, taken singly and as a whole are significant predictors of performance in the Nursing Board Examination. Students who perform better in the UNP-CAT, NAT, and in their academics tend to perform better in the Nursing Board Examination. Academic performance as the best predictor underscores the importance of the kind of education and training the university provides to its studentry.

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Title: Poverty’s Political Face: The Case of Pasil, Cebu City
Name: RHODERICK JOHN S. ABELLANOSA
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Coming from the notions of AmartyaSen and Robert Chambers, on poverty as “capability deprivation” and “absence of well-being”, this study seeks to portray a “political face” of the poor’s condition. Beyond the usual depiction of the poor as living below the “poverty line” what kind of lives do they have in the much larger landscape of the structure of power relations? How do they position themselves vis-a-vis the powerful politicians and how do they understand themselves as actors of political processes such as elections? The study believes that beyond the totalizing views of poverty in mainstream social science scholarship, the poor’s portrayal and understanding of their own condition must be considered, not to replace the existing explanations and views but in order to interrogate and eventually enrich some of its assumptions. A particular village, i.e. Pasil is used as a case in order to provide an empirical illustration of the study. The said village is located in Cebu City, a bigger proportion of which is a slum area. Methodologically, the study uses qualitative data collection techniques such as Focus Group Discussion and Key Informant Interview; socio-political analysis and analysis of interview and discussion transcriptions are part of the interpretive process.

Keywords: poverty, political face, well-being, participation, deprivation
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Title: Phytochemical and Pesticidal Properties of Barsanga (Cyperus rotundus Linn.)
Name: SOLITA EVANGELINE S. BAÑEZ LIZA CASTOR
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The study was conducted to test the phytochemical screening and insecticidal testing of Barsanga (Cyperus rotundus Linn). This study made use of the experimental research design in actual laboratory set-up. Three phases were included in the pursuit of this study: the extraction process, the qualitative test (phytochemical screening ) and pesticidal test. Results showed that the ethanol extracts of the leaves, stems and roots of barsanga contain therapeutic components such as alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids and sterols. This implies that the plant is a good source of treatment for hypertension, tumor, wounds, sores, boils, stomachache, diarrhea, sore throat, burns, ulcer, nasal congestion, cough, hemorrhage, malaria, other rectal disorders, viral and fungal infections, inflammatory and cytotoxic activities. The plant is not an excellent emulsifying agent because it does not contain saponins and therefore cannot be used as detergent to replace soap. The Libermann-Burchard test for triterpenes showed negative results which implies then that barsanga is not a good source of Vitamin A. The tuber of Barsanga (Cyperus rotundus Linn.) can be made into an effective pesticide. It is more effective than Carbamate and has almost the same efficacy as that of Organophosphate. Based on the conclusions, the researchers present the following recommendations: a follow-up study should be conducted to quantify, isolate and identify the type of alkaloids, tannins, saponins, sterols and flavonoids present in barsanga (Cyperus rotundus Linn.,the plant is recommended for microbiological and other pharmacological screenings; further studies on the plant’s therapeutic properties should be conducted by interested researchers and drug companies; and the plant should be included in the compilation and documentation of medicinal plants in the Philippines through REDTI,NRCP, DOST and UP and be indexed at the Plant Resources of Southeast Asia (PROSEA).The use of barsanga tubers as an ecology friendly pesticides can be integrated in the production technology package of local agricultural production.

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Title: Perceptions of Secondary School Teachers on the Utilization of Educational Technology
Name: VICPHER D. GARNADA
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The study investigated the perceptions of public and private secondary school teachers in selected municipalities of Zamboanga del Sur Province, Mindanao, Philippines on the utilization of educational technology. The descriptive research design is used in which questionnaire was employed as main instrument in gathering data from the 132 public and 34 private secondary school teachers. The study revealed that majority of the respondents was female and more or less 31 years of age. Most of them were taking masters; Makabayan had a great share as to their area of concentration. Nearly everyone was neophytes with permanent status in the service and attended 1 to 3 times on trainings/seminars in educational technology. The public secondary teachers mostly utilized television, DVD player and radio/cassette tape player, while majority of the private secondary teachers utilized computer with internet connection, computer printer and DVD player. The teachers both in public and private secondary schools perceived that they rarely used educational technology in their teaching. They have uncertain disposition towards the role of educational technology. The perceptions of the two groups of respondents were no significant difference between the responses of the public and private secondary school teachers on the utilization of educational technology.

Keywords: educational technology, perception, utilization, secondary school teacher
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Title: Morphological Analysis of Gay’s Spoken Discourse
Name: ARIEL B. LUNZAGA, HERMABETH O. BENDULO & VIOLETA B. FELISILDA
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The language of gays known as gayspeak has now earned respect from the community and observably been infused in the mainstream language of the society. Language is evolving and with its changing nature, existing language needs to be documented for posterity reasons. Gayspeak is not an exemption. It has to be analyzed especially its morphology. This study focused on the morphological analysis of the language of gays who were studying at SLSU-Tomas Oppus in SY 2009-2010. Specifically, it identified the common vocabulary of local gays and the corresponding meanings through a self-administered questionnaire and an informal conversation. Based from the information provided by 20 purposively selected college gays, it was learned that gayspeak is simply an adaptation of the mainstream language like English, Filipino, and Cebuano. For purposes of shielding from the chasms of the heterosexuals, gays construct their language through simple reversal, syllabic reversal, simple reversal with affixation, clipping with affixation, straight words with affixation, and connotation through images. It was concluded that the spoken discourse of college gays in the campus violates the rules of English grammar yet used by gays for purposes of expressing themselves in a way unrecognizable by the discriminating straight men in highly patriarchal society.

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Title: Love and the Mentally Challenged: Unraveling the Affective Domain
Name: ROSELLE J. RANARIO
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This study describes the affective domain specifically on the psychology of emotion among mentally challenged male students as manifested by their love and attraction towards the opposite sex. Included in the study were the Mentally Challenged pupils in selected SPED Centers, aged 15 and above who were observed to have marked attraction toward another person. Respondents and experts believed that it is risky to allow mentally challenged individuals to marry due to the following reasons: the possibility that the MC can become pregnant; she will experience trauma or psychological damage if she becomes pregnant; the likelihood that the individual will voluntarily engage in sexual activity ; be exposed to situations where sexual intercourse is imposed upon her; the inability of the MC to understand reproduction and the likely permanence of that inability of the MC to care for a child. Another presumption restricting marriages is that mentally retarded persons do not make successful marriage partners. The MC’s capacity to love starts and ends in Passionate Love. The feeling called love should be encouraged in class but with proper guidance as it helps develop the MCs socio – emotional behavior for it cultivates motivation, participation, interaction, and happiness among the mentally challenged.

Keywords: Mentally Challenged, Affective Domain, Love, Socio-emotional Behaviors, Psychological damage, trauma.
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Title: LCCB as a Professional Learning Community (PLC) in the Eyes of the Faculty
Name: RANDDIE P. CUELO
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This study aimed to assess, through the perceptions of its faculty, the practices of La Consolacion College Bacolod (LCCB) relating to professional learning communities (PLC). Ninety-two faculty responded to the 52-item standardized instrument “Professional Learning Community Assessment-Revised” developed by Dr. Diane Olivier of the University of Louisiana measured perceptions towards the practice of the six dimensions of PLC. Results revealed that teachers positively perceive and agree that LCCB is a professional learning community by virtue of the evident practices of the PLC dimensions. Of the six dimensions, ‘collective learning and application’ ranked first, while ‘shared and supportive leadership’ was ranked the lowest. The perceptions of the teachers significantly vary, indicating that teaching classification, teaching experience, and affiliation in the program has an influence on how a teacher recognizes various institutional practices. The more those teachers are involved in practices of the College, the more likely they are to impress positive perception. The study concluded that LCCB is a legitimate professional learning community from the eyes of its teachers and affirmed the finding of a previous related study that a shared and supportive leadership continues to be a need and demand by the faculty of the College.

Keywords: PLC, leadership, administration, organization
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Title: Gleaning, Drying and Marketing Practices of Sea Cucumber in Davao del Sur, Philippines
Name: MILAGROS C. SUBALDO
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Gleaning, drying and marketing practices of sea cucumber in Davao del Sur was conducted to document the local practices, common species gathered and to identify problems along with the adopted practices. Results disclosed that gleaning was done by skin diving with the use of air compressor or hand picking in intertidal reef flats during low tide. Species usually gathered includes Stichopus horrens, Holuthuria scabra, Stichopus hermani, Thelonota anax, Holothuria fuscolgiva, Holothuria fuscopunctata, Bohadschia marmorata and Holothuria whitmaei. Drying process for beche-de-mer production includes washing, evisceration, washing, boiling, soaking in brine solution, smoke drying and sun drying. However, soaking in brine solution was practiced only by processors in the 1st District of the province purposely to extend its shelf-life. Selling was done in “all-in” basis, cash upon delivery and buyers were the one dictating the market price. Flows of dried sea cucumber from processors were through wholesalers coming from Digos City and Davao City and shipped to Manila and Korean markets. Problems identified along with the adopted practices were non-selection as to size utilized for consumption or for sale. Also, problems on poor drying practices, packaging materials used non-utilization of entrails and disposal of waste.

Keywords: Sea Cucumber, Gleaning, Drying, Marketing Practices
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Title: Diversity and Status of Butterflies in Mt. Timpoong and Mt. Hibok-hibok, Camiguin Island, Philippines
Name: JOLIESA MAE S. TOLEDO, ALMA B. MOHAGAN
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Diversity assessment of butterflies was conducted to provide information on species composition, diversity trends cross vegetation type’s status, and distribution of butterflies in Mt. Timpoong and Mt. Hibok-hibok, Camiguin Island. This study was carried out using catching net to collect butterfly species in the two mountains of Camiguin namely Mt. Hibok-hibok and Mt. Timpoong from December 2009 to May 2010. The study revealed 81 species of butterflies in both mountains. 73 species were collected in Mt. Timpoong and 41 species in Mt. Hibok-hibok. Species richness of butterflies showed that there is a decreasing trend across vegetation types in both mountains. Highest diversity level was observed in the agro-ecosystem of Mt. Timpoong (H’= 1.70) and Mt. Hibok-hibok (H’=1.48) respectively. Status assessment showed 18 or 22 % endemic species out of which, 14 are present in Mt. Timpoong and only 8 are present in Mt. Hibok-hibok.

Keywords: butterflies, Mt. Hibok-hibok, Mt. Timpoong
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Title: Determinants of L.E.T. Performance of the Teacher Education Graduates in a State University
Name: JUANITA B. PASCUA & JANE D. NAVALTA
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This study determined the correlation of personal and educational related factors with the LET performance of the Teacher Education graduates of NVSU, second semester, S.Y. 2007 -2008. The respondents’ personal and educational data were gathered from the Registrar’s records while the result of the LET performance was taken from the PRC through the LET Review Committee. The study used descriptive survey method with the use of documentary analysis. T-test was used to determine the difference in the LET performance when grouped according to gender and degree course. F-test was used to determine if there is significant difference in LET performance and English proficiency of the respondents. Scheffe Post Hoc Test was utilized to determine the significant difference in English proficiency in terms of percentile ranks. There were more Elementary Education respondents than Secondary Education. English proficiency of respondents ranged from 23.00-73.75. There were more passers from the Elementary level than those from the Secondary level. Females’ performance in LET was statistically the same with their male counterpart and that the BEEd performed better than the BSEd and all other courses combined (BSMath, BSAExt, BSHT, BSIE, BSAEd).Degree Course, GPA, English Proficiency, and Admission Test Score indicated significant relationship with LET performance.

Keywords: Licensure Examination for Teachers (LET), English proficiency, Teacher Education graduates
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Title: Dialects, Beliefs and Practices of the Tinguians of Abra
Name: DIGNA JOCELYN L. ABAYA, MARCIANA P. DE VERA & MANUEL A. BAJET JR
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This descriptive research identified the dialects,beliefs and practices of the Tinguians in Abra utilizing a questionnaire – checklist coupled with personal interview and ethnography. Of the twenty seven (27) municipalities of Abra, onlytwenty-two (22) speak the eleven (11) Ethno linguistic dialects: Adasen, Balatok, Banao, Belwang, Binongan, Gobang,Inlaud, Mabaka, Maeng,,Masadiit and Moyadan; while Fourteen(14)municipalities speak the Inlaud dialect. Courtship was never practiced. Tani was the mode of marriage. The Danon was done on moonlight nights. The Sab-ong was discussed when the marriage was set. One is assigned for the Billite to all the relatives and friends when the marriage was set. The dead were not embalmed, thus, bagungon lasted only for three days. Somebody does the Beccaang to the relatives and friends about the death of a relative. Taradyo was collected. Tadek was danced during marriage and burial. Uggayamand Salidummay were chanted during death and danon. The dead were buried in the yards, under the houses orstairs. Balliwes was danced after the burial. Golgol was done a day after the burial. Today, Bagungon, Taradyo,Waksi and Tadek are still practiced. Tani, Danunand Sab-ong are no longer practiced. Billite and Beccaang are now obsolete ways of information during marriages and death of their relatives. Dead are already buried in cemeteries.

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Title: Development and Validation of Modules in English 2: Writing in the Discipline
Name: MARDIE D.EMOTIN-BUCJAN
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Writing is one of the four macro-skills to be developed in language among the students. This paper focused on the Development and Validation of Modules in English 2: Writing in the Discipline. The modules aimed to enhance the basic organizational, judgmental and mechanical writing skills of students as they follow the writing process while performing written tasks and assignments required for their academic pursuits. The study utilized a content validated feedback questionnaire for the pool of experts, instructors and students. The study employed the descriptive method of research. The study underwent the four phases of material development namely: design phase, development phase, field-try out phase, and evaluation phase based on Johnson’s Model (1998). The gathered data were statistically treated using the arithmetic mean and analysis of variance. The results of the study reveal that the contents; activities, exercises and techniques used in the modules were varied allowing the students to work independently and creatively; the over-all assessment of the pool of experts, teachers and students revealed that the modules were appropriate to the level and needs of the students; These conclusions were drawn: the varied activities and techniques used in the modules were very helpful to the learners, and the tandem of teaching and learning was evident allowing the students to work independently; the modules were very relevant and very useful for use in the class because these answer the need of the students to improve writing skill.The format, contents and organization of the modules were generally commendable as perceived by the three- group of evaluators.

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Title: Correlates of Word Problem Solving Capabilities in Algebra of the First Year Engineering Students
Name: MELANIE D. LUGO
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Word problems are topics in Algebra which are abhorred by most students. The study aimed at identifying the correlation that contribute to problem solving capabilities of freshmen college students who were enrolled in Algebra of De La Salle Lipa. It was anchored on three groups of correlates that contributed to problem solving capabilities of students; personal, cognitive, and social factors. The respondents’ entrance examination result in Math; word problem solving scores were considered in the findings of the study. Results showed that respondents’ attitude towards problem solving had affected their capabilities to a large extent. Study strategies have been affected to a large extent, while only one affected their capabilities to a small extent. There is a significant relationship between the problem solving capabilities of the students in the three factors. The common problems exhibited were wrong representation, wrong computation, and use of trial and error method, misinterpretation, forgotten formulas, and forgotten concepts. The cognitive and the social factors had a significant effect on the problem solving capabilities of the students.

Keywords: correlation, algebra, word problem solving, personal factor, cognitive factors, social factors
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Title: Competencies of Instructors: Its Correlation to the Factors Affecting the Academic Performance of Students
Name: MELROSE A. SALI-OT
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The study determined the competencies of instructors and its correlation to the factors affecting the academic performance of students in Western Mindanao State University- External Studies Units, Western Mindanao, Philippines. The descriptive research method was employed in the conduct of the study. The respondents were randomly selected with the used of stratified sampling. A questionnaire checklist was the main instrument in collecting data from the respondents. Weighted mean, ranking, and coefficient of correlation by Spearman’s formula were used to analyze the data gathered. The instructors are much competent in the five indicators of the teaching competencies. The students’ performance was sometimes affected with the predetermined factors. The two groups of respondents have the same responses as to the teachers’ competencies and the factors affecting the academic performance. The most prevailing competency was communication with the learners, and the least prevailing is learner reinforcement- involvement. The most prevailing factor was intellectual, and the least prevailing was physical. There was moderate correlation between the competencies of college instructors and the factors affecting the academic performance of students.

Keywords: competencies, instructors, academic performance, factors affecting academic performance
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Title: Class Size and Academic Performance of BISU-MC Engineering Students
Name: VIRGILIA ARANJUEZ, ADELAIDA L. CAYUNDA, RYAN TORRALBA, ERIC BALILI, & ANN JELLY POLO
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The main thrust of the study was to determine the relationship between class size and the academic performance of Engineering students of BISU MC during the academic years 2008-2009, 2009- 2010 and 2010-2011. Specifically, the study sought to identify the profile of students’ class size and academic performance, the difference between the academic performance of students belonging to a class size of less than or equal to 50 and a class size of greater than 50, the relationship between class size and the academic performance and the action plan that could be proposed based on the result of the study. The study made use of the descriptive documentary method wherein the academic performance ratings were obtained from the Registrar’s Office. Z-test was used to get the difference between the academic performance of students belonging to a class size of less than 50 and students belonging to a class size of greater than 50. Pearson Product-Moment Correlation Coefficient was used to get the relationship between class size and the academic performance. It was found out that there is no significant difference in the academic performance of students belonging to a class of less than or equal to 50 and students belonging to a class of greater than 50. It was also found out that there was no significant relationship between class size and academic performance of students. The researchers suggest the following recommendations: For the convenience of both students and teachers, observance to the CHED Memorandum Order No. 52 on the ideal class size is recommended. They also recommend having further studies on the instructors’ teaching efficiency and their attitudes toward students in large classes as well as on the effects of big class sizes to students. Finally, other researchers may replicate this study to further verify different variables such as the economic factors, family background, etc. that may influence students’ academic performance. The researchers come up with a proposed action plan for the improvement of the learning conditions of the students.

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Title: Canonical Correlation Analysis of Student Perception on Instructional Quality and Satisfaction
Name: HENRY C. ENCABO
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The study models student perceptions on instructional quality and student satisfaction using canonical correlation analysis. Data from two survey occasions were modeled to assess the strength and relative consistency of the instructional quality variables in predicting student satisfaction. Results show that student’s perception on the adequacy, usefulness, accessibility, safety and convenience of the learning facilities and their perception on the faculty teaching strategies and subject matter knowledge are the most influential factors of student satisfaction. Canonical functions and cross loadings derived from the data sets show similar pattern or trend which is taken to indicate consistency of the models. The implication of the findings to managing student satisfaction among higher education institutions is briefly discussed.

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