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Asian Journal of Health

Title: The Caregiver\'s and Nurse Therapist\'s Experiences on Gestalt Therapy
Name: DAISY PALOMPON, MA. MAYLA IMELDA LAPA, HAZEL CANEDA and JONI INOCENCIA GONZAGA
Abstract:

The most often neglected member of the group who cares for the patients in the hospital is the informal family caregiver who often experiences emotional crisis. This study explored how gestalt therapy helps the caregiver and the personal experiences of the nurse therapist who did gestalt therapy. Utilizing phenomenological design, three caregivers were provided with gestalt therapy and interviewed. The caregivers and the nurse therapist related that through gestalt therapy there was a feeling of relief and awareness of the crisis being experienced developed by the participants. It is concluded that gestalt therapy enables the caregivers to go through their crisis by enabling them to develop relief from emotional crisis, awareness of their problems

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Title: Vitamin D Receptor Gene Bsm1 Polymorphism Positively Correlates with Prostate Cancer
Name: BELLA MARILOU BAXA-DAGUPLO, NICO CALINGACION, VAN ANTHONY VILLAR, REBECCA VILLANUEVA, DINAH GARINGANAO, RODRIGO GARCIA and REMEDIOS SANTOS
Abstract:

The biologically active 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol has been shown to regulate the growth and differentiation of the normal prostate gland. This hormone exerts antiproliferative and oncostatic effects on prostatic cells through the vitamin D receptor, a member of the steroid/retinoid receptor superfamily of nuclear receptors that possesses tumor-suppressive functions. In a case control study, the authors evaluated the allelic frequencies and examined whether the Bsm1 vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene polymorphism could influence the development of benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancer among Filipino patients through Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP). The predominant genotypes showed the absence of the Bsm1 restriction site in both the BPH group (BB, 28%; Bb, 44%) and the control group ( BB, 44.4%; Bb, 50%). In contrast, majority of the prostate cancer cases had the bb genotype (70%) indicating the presence of the Bsm1 restriction site, and only 28% with Bb genotype. Furthermore, homozygosity (bb) for the presence of the Bsm1 restriction site positively correlated with the development of prostate cancer (p=0.0014, Odds Ratio=38.9) but not with benign prostate hyperplasia p=0.06). These results indicate that the molecular variants of the VDR gene play a significant role in the development of prostate cancer among Filipinos and can be employed to identify high-risk individuals.

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Title: Preparation of the Blood-Enriched Agar with the Use of Red Cell Suspension
Name:

CARINA R. MAGBOJOS, RICHELLE S. ARO, MA. CHARISMA S. CARINGAL, MELVIN M. CASTILLO, DARWIN A. LLANES and KAREN D. SUMARAY

Abstract:

A culture medium is said to support the growth and development of different microorganisms. Certain bacteria like Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis entail hemoglobin found in the red blood cells. Because of its cost effectiveness and availability, expired human blood is being utilized in some developing countries. Despite the widely accepted disadvantages of using human blood as enrichment agent, many laboratories still opt to use it due to the unavailability of sheep blood or due to budgetary reasons. This study determined if the washed expired human blood can be used as an alternative enrichment agent in the preparation of Blood Agar Plate (BAP) culture medium in the isolation of Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 12228. The cultural characteristics and hemolytic reactions of the selected microorganisms were recorded, assessed and compared with their growth in BAP. The stability of the washed expired human blood was evaluated in terms of temperature and storage period. Results reveal that expired human blood with washing improved the morphologic and hemolytic pattern of Staphylococcus aureus.

The washing of blood had no effect on Staphylococcus epidermidis because it is a gamma hemolytic bacterium. Both unwashed expired and fresh human blood produced gamma hemolysis due to the interferences still present in them. Both washed expired human blood and washed fresh human blood produced beta hemolysis. Washed expired human blood could be stored for seven days and still could be used for microbial culture.

Keywords:

Blood, Blood Enriched Agar, Red Cell Suspension

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Title: Anthelmintic Effects of Processed Mature Betel Nut as Dewormer to Native Chicken and Small Ruminants (Sheep and Goats)
Name: MOISES GLENN G. TANGALIN
Abstract:

The study aimed to determine the anthelmenthic effects of processed mature betel nut (Areca catechu) and commercial dewormer to native chicken, sheep and goats. The study consisted of four treatments. The result of the study reveals that after thorough laboratory examination of the feces, it was found out that round worms, tapeworms and parasite eggs were expelled by the processed mature betel nut. Among the treatments used, Treatment I, 1g processed nut per 1 kg body weight is the most effective. However, those administered with 2 and 3 grams of powdered betel nut is also effective but the chickens showed unhealthy condition. While in Goat and Sheep; Treatment I, administered with 20g/20kg.BW; Treatment II, administered with 30g/20kgLW; Treatment III, administered with 240g/20kgLW; and Treatment IV, administered with 1 ml/10 kgBW using albendazole, a commercial dewormer. The result of the study revealed that the processed native betel nut can expel eggs and adult parasites like roundworms and tapeworms, while commercial dewormer can expel only roundworms. Among levels of powdered betel nut used, Treatment II, 30g/20kgBW showed better result.

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betel nut, commercial dewormer, adult parasites

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Title: Music on the Second Stage of Labor among Women in their First Pregnancy
Name:

DAISY PALOMPON, FLEOY YSMAEL, LAGRIMAS ELIZON, JILLIAN BEJOC, JONI GONZAGA and HAZEL CAÑEDA

Abstract:

This study determined the effects of music on the duration of the second stage of labor among primigravida or women in their first pregnancy at Cebu City Medical Center. An experimental design was utilized in this study with experimental and control group. A random sampling was utilized with the following criteria considered: a) primigravida or women on their first pregnancy admitted at the Delivery Room; b) age bracket: 20-30 years old; c) no complications of pregnancy. All respondents had Normal Spontaneous Vaginal Delivery (NSVD). Each qualified respondent was chosen randomly to three conditions. A total of forty-five respondents (15 for classical music group, 15 fast music group and 15 for silence or control group) was selected. The shorter the second stage of labor, the more effective is the treatment provided. Findings revealed that the group of mothers who had no music has the shortest duration of the second stage of labor, followed by the group using fast music and the longest duration was that of the group using slow music. ANOVA computation was done which was significant at p=.05. Scheffe\'s Test further showed that fast music is more effective in hastening the second stage of labor than slow music and a significant difference between the slow music group and the no music group was also identified.

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Title: Visual Biofeedback: Adjunct Mirror Intervention during Stage Two Labor among Primiparous Women
Name: DAISY PALOMPON
Abstract:

This study determined the effectiveness of mvisual biofeedback in hastening stage II of labor between primiparous women administered with adjunct intervention and those who were not. A non-equivalent post-test design with twenty primiparous women distributed to both control and experimental groups chosen through purposive sampling. A 3 x 2 foot mirror to provide visual biofeedback (treatment), a stopwatch to measure the length of time elapsed from full cervical dilatation and effacement to the delivery of baby, and a tally sheet for recording of data were used in data gathering. Findings show that the control group (not subjected to mirror) obtained the mean of 18.92 (SD=7.17) while the experimental group (subjected to mirror) obtained a mean of 6.77 with a mean difference of 12.15 (SD=5.24). The computed t- test value is 4.37, which was greater than the table value of 2.23 tested at 0.05 level of significance. Results showed a significan t difference in the duration of second stage of labor, thus, the use of mirror as a feedback mechanism during the second stage of labor reduces its duration.

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Title: The Environmental Sanitation, Hygienic Practices and the Prevalence of Intestinal Parasitism among Schoolchildren
Name:

IAN C. ABORDO, JERALD L. PELAYO, ALDWYN A. NUÑEZ, JOHN ANGEL TAGRA and IVON CLAIRE S. MILITANTE

Abstract:

This paper presents the prevalence of parasitic infection three weeks after a de-worming process in August 2010 of a community in Valencia, Bukidnon, Philippines. Using mixed methods, the authors obtained data from the 203 schoolchildren and the parents of the infected school children. Thirteen schoolchildren had parasitic infections, and hookworm was the most prevalent parasite observed. This suggests resistant infection or rapid reinfection after the de-worming process. The infection could have occurred especially with the children playing barefooted in contaminated watery areas. The free-living pets that came in and out of their houses could have contributed to the rapid reinfection. The 13 infected children had cough and colds, abdominal pain, manifested pallor, and suffered body weakness. Five of the infected children experienced loss of appetite and four had BMI below the normal range based on the Philippine BMI standards. No differences were found in the environmental sanitation and hygienic practices between those schoolchildren who were (13) and were not (190) infected with parasites. The parents interviewed reacted with wonder, worry, and anger, and received confirmation for their suspicions about their children\'s condition. They were happy that May 2011 is scheduled for another de-worming procedure.

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Title: Eosinophilia and Incidence of Soil-Transmitted Helminthic Infections of Secondary Students of an Indigenous School
Name:

JAMES B. SUMAGAYSAY and FLORICEL M. EMVERDA

Abstract:

The incidence of STHI and its relation to eosinophilia were examined in 74 students of a secondary school for the indigenous people (IP) in Bukidnon, Northern Mindanao, Philippines. After obtaining necessary permission and consent, blood and stool samples were collected and examined. Kato-Katz method was used to determine and quantify helminths. Differential WBC count identified the manifestation of eosinophilia. Incidence of blood eosinophilia among the participants was 58% (43/74) with 12.2% mean eosinophil WBC count. Percentage of eosinophil among infected and non-infected varied significantly (p< 0.05), except for Trichuris infection. Cumulative morbidity of STHI is 37.8% (28/74) with mean ova count of 1266 EPGF. Females have significantly higher parasite load than males (t= 2.663; p =0.015). Single and co-infections occurred among the participants. Occurrence of single infection was 14.7% (11/74) for Ancylostoma duodenale, 14.7% (11/74) for Ascaris lumbricoides, 1.4% (1/74) for Trichuris trichura, 6.8% (5/74) for co-infections. Light infection occurred in 35.1% (26/74) of the participants while 2.7% (2/74) suffered moderate infection. There was a moderate association (r = 0.328; p = 0.004) between eosinophilia and parasitism. Because STHI aggravate health, P groups must be ensured of access to health services and health education. Regular implementation of effective helminthic-disease management and prevention programs is crucial to eliminate the prevalence and persistence of STHI in the area.

Keywords:

Eosinophilia, Soil-Transmitted Helminthic Infections, Intestinal Parasitism, Helminthiasis, Indigenous People, Bukidnon

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Title: Traditional Ecological Knowledge System of the Matigsalug Tribe in Mitigating the Effects of Dengue and Malaria Outbreak
Name: MERVIN G. GASCON
Abstract:

This paper presents the traditional ecological knowledge system (TEKS) of the Matigsalug tribe in mitigating the effects of dengue and malaria in the hinterlands of Marilog District, Davao City, Philippines. Dengue fever and malaria are prevalent in the area during the rainy season. The Matigsalug people are otherwise known as \"river people\" as they have been occupying the banks of the Davao River. Participants in the study were the tribe\'s herbalists, healers (Babaylan), elders, and tribal leaders (Datu or male chieftain and Bai or female chieftain). This inquiry finds that the Matigsalug tribe people heavily practice TEKS in managing natural disasters especially the dreadful dengue and malaria fever. The tribal community sees the essential role of ecological balance in reducing the risks and mitigating the effects of proliferation of disease-carrying mosquitoes. They commonly use homemadelemongrass preparations in lotion and smoke forms to deter mosquitoes. They command their children to stop catching and playing with spiders and frogs.

They view the role of these organisms very important in keeping the spread of mosquitoes at bay. The tribal people conduct community cleaning of river bank and backyard at regular intervals during the rainy season.

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herbalists, dengue, malaria, lemongrass, Matigsalog, traditional ecological knowledge

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Title: Traditional and Modern Practices Enhance Health Knowledge of the Bagobo Tribe
Name: MERVIN G. GASCON
Abstract:

Using interviews and community discussions, this paper sought to determine the health practices of the Bagobo in the Malagos watershed, particularly the confluence between the modern and indigenous. This paper discusses why despite the high-level of acceptance of modern health practices introduced by health workers, the Bagobo have not ended traditional ways of making themselves healthy. Instead, they have combined the traditional and modern practices to enrich their health knowledge. The decision to fuse the two is a consequence of what facilities and materials are available to them in the area. The Bagobo have fully embraced modern ways in some aspects of their life-cycle such as maternal and child care, however their indigenous ways particularly circumcision, child-delivery, and the use of medicinal plants still prevail.

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Bagobo, health practices, indigenous knowledge, Malagos watershed

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Title: Predictors of Depression among Institutionalized Elderly Clients
Name:

DAISY R. PALOMPON, RUTH ENTE and JOSE BANTUGAN

Abstract:

The elderly population is considered vulnerable to stress. One common stereotype of growing older is that there is a high chance of becoming depressed. Utilizing a descriptive design, data were gathered from thirty-seven (37) respondents in two geriatric facilities in Cebu. A researcher-administered questionnaire was utilized containing the demographic data, Self-esteem Scale adapted from Rosenberg, Berlin Social Support Scale adopted from Schwarzer and Schulz and Geriatric Depression Scale. Findings revealed that majority of the respondents who are institutionalized are female, single and has acquired elementary level in terms of education with a mean age of 76. Moreover, respondents had moderate self-esteem, adequate social support and a depression level of moderate to severe. Only social support showed a significant correlation with depression. It is concluded that although social support is a necessary element for the prevention of depression among institutionalized geriatric clients.

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Title: Psychological Well-Being and Coping Mechanisms of Battered Women
Name: TESSIE J. RODRIGUEZ
Abstract:

The study determined the battered women\'s degree of psychological well-being, coping mechanisms and the relationship between psychological well-being and coping mechanisms. The variables were measured using the Caroll Ryff Scales of Psychological Well-Being and Ways of Coping Inventory and test of relationship was made using the Pearson r. The results show that the battered women had very good psychological well-being and positive reappraisal, seeking social support, accepting responsibility and planful problem-solving coping mechanisms were employed in succumbing distress associated with the experience from domestic violence.

Psychological well-being and coping mechanisms were correlated but at various strengths. The findings reveal that battered women must not prolong their stay at home nor stay in the abusive relationship but run for shelter and seek help to promptly restore the shattered psychological well-being. An excellent psychological well-being leads them to cope with the crisis through problem-focused type of coping mechanisms. However, emotion-focused coping mechanisms are used when psychological well-being is not in excellent status. Constant supervision and monitoring must be given to them even if they are subjected to therapeutic sessions. A trained psychiatrist, psychologist and social worker are required to efficiently and effectively respond to the victims. Finally, a comprehensive intervention program encompassing all dimensions of a person must be crafted, designed and implemented in support to the battered women in the shelter home.

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psychological well-being, coping mechanism, battered women

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Title: Lived Experiences with Arthritis among Older People
Name: JOEL P. DEFENSOR
Abstract:

Arthritis is one of the many disabling diseases in the Philippines today. Its effects on the older persons are paramount in terms of productivity and quality of life. This study identified the experiences of older people with arthritis in Cagayan de Oro City. A descriptive method was used. The study was conducted at the offic e o f Senio r Citizen\'s Organization, Cagayan de Oro City. The respondents were members of OSCA (Offic e o f Senio r Citize n Affair s) who are affected by arthritis. An interview schedule was used in the gathering of data. The majority of older people are still living under the debilitative and disabling effects of arthritis despite the advancement of medical management. Without proper medical management of arthritis, quality life for older people with arthritis shall remain to be attained. Effective ways must be done to deliver education, knowledge and understanding of arthritis to the older individuals.

Keywords:

lived experiences, arthritis, older people

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Title: Health Promotion of Local Migrant Workers in a Highly Urbanized City
Name:

DONNA LOU E. NERI and GENARO V. JAPOS

Abstract:

This descriptive study explores the health promotion of local migrant workers in a highly urbanized city in Southern Philippines. The respondents were the 164 workers in five of the biggest retail stores in the city. Modified questionnaires, supplemented with focus group dicussions, were the main tools employed. Permission to conduct the study was requested from the Department of Labor and Employement and the store management. Written informed consent from the study participants was also sought. Data gathered were then processed using descriptive statistics. Results show that the male and female migrant workers are barely legal, just off their teenage life, attended college, mostly single, belonged to medium-sized families, with fathers either farmers or private employees and mothers who were housewives with no gainful employment. The workers had various physical and mental health problems, as well as poor health-seeking behaviors. The findings have various implications on program planning and policy making in related private and government agencies to promote the health of local migrant workers.

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health promotion, migrant workers, health problems, health-seeking behaviors

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Title: Lived Experiences of Patients Undergoing Cardiac Rehabilitation
Name: ROBERT KENNARD M. SINTAY, RN, MSN
Abstract:

This qualitative study focused on the patients\' lived experiences in cardiac rehabilitation. A phenomenological research design was the foundation of the study. The lived experiences of the patients directly discovered the uniqueness of the true meaning of cardiac rehabilitation experience in its physical and psychological aspects. Participants were selected through purposive and snowball sampling. Key informant interview served as a method for data collection. Themes that emerged from the participants\' unique encounter comprised of three (3) major themes: recovery, behavior modification and interpersonal relationship and fiftee n (15 ) subthemes: physical recuperation, sexual activity, positive outlook in life, motivation, psychological recovery, gaining new knowledge, fear, openness, self-discipline, empathy, change in mood, willingness to participate, spiritually, safety, camaraderie, and family support. In conclusion, listening and learning the experiences from the patient who is in the process of CCReP lead us to identify the physiologic and psychological aspect of recovery. This study on CCReP provided an insight not only about clinical improvement but also about the body of the nursing profession. Greater encouragement to post operative cardiac surgery will allow patients to immerse themselves in the uniqueness of the experience and the positive physiological and psychological effect of cardiac rehabilitation.

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Title: Environmental Indicators of Life Expectancy
Name:

GENARO V. JAPOS, Ph.D., RONALD D. ESTRADA and EMILIANA J. LOZANO, DBA

Abstract:

The study determined the global patterns of environmental indicators and life expectancy in 97 countries selected through purposive sampling. Life expectancy index is the number of years a newborn infant would live if prevailing patterns of mortality at the same time of birth were to stay the same throughout the child\'s life. The study used data mining with four phases: exploratory data analysis, confirmation of data for reliability, theory formulation, and theory validation. The global pattern of human development indices revealed that clustering of countries reflects similarities in environmental characteristics. Cluster 1 includes the USA and the highly developed countries in Europe, Australia and Asia. These countries have strong environmental structures. Cluster 2 includes the least developed countries in Africa and Asia with low ratings in environmental indicators. Cluster 3 is formed by Asian developing countries and other newly industrialized countries. They have low ratings in environmental sustainability indicators. Cluster 4 includes countries in the American continent, and the southern and central parts and Asia. These countries have low environmental sustainability. The global trend of life expectancy indicates that people live longer if they live in countries with sustainable environment in terms of higher environmental health, clean and potable water, and clean and fresh air.

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international pattern, life expectancy index, gross domestic product index, environmental health, water stress, air pollution,

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Title: Investigating the Protective Effect of Solanum melongena
Name: SAIMA GUL, SAGHEER AHMED, HUMAIRA GUL and FATIMA SHAD KANEEZ
Abstract:

The aim of this study is to investigate the protective effect of Solanum melongena (S. Melongena). Different solvent were used to extract the fractions. Antiplatelet activity was monitored using dual channel Lumi aggregometer, antioxidant enzymes were measured using kits purchased from RANDOX, UK while calcium channel blocking activity was screened on guinea pig ileum using isolated organ bath assembly. Aqueous fraction, Ethyl acetate fraction and Chloroform fraction potently inhibited platelet aggregation, antioxidant and calcium channel blocking activity respectively. These results indicated that all fractions of S. Melongena possesses antioxidant properties but aqueous fraction posses both AA and PAF antiplatelet activity and chloroform fraction acts as calcium channel blocker. We hypothesized that fractionation process may be responsible for the modification of the active compounds present in the extracts of S. Melongena and hence for their respective properties. Moreover, PAF aggregation cycle molecules which are involved in blocking may not be soluble either in ethyl acetate or chloroform.

Keywords:

solanum melongena, platelet aggregation, antioxidant, calcium channel blockers, traditional medicine

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