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Liceo Journal of Higher Education Research

Title: Attitude towards Physics and Physics Performance, Theories of Learning, and Prospects in Teaching Physics
Name: Rolando A. Alimen, Ph. D.
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This study aimed to determine the performance and attitude towards Physics using comparative data-analysis for the period of five years last 2000 and 2005. The data gathered were further utilized to investigate learning theories and prospects in teaching Physics. The sources of data were obtained from the \"GPA\" and \"attitude towards Physics\" for the period of five years. The researcher employed \"System Theory\" proposed by L. von Bertalanffy (1968) known as \"General System Theory,\" a multidisciplinary field. Results revealed that attitude and performance in Physics among engineering students had declined in the period of five years. Theories of learning that explored in the two studies were: Bandura Theory of Social Learning, Operant Conditioning by B.F. Skinner, John Dewey\'s Experiential Learning, David Kolb\'s Experiential Learning, and Kurt Lewin\'s Field. Rethinking the lecture method, creative activities in the teaching of Physics, necessity of a substantial teacher re-training, starting with the existing curriculum and culture as the starting point of educational reform, and formulation of a set of learning objectives, strategies, and activities for fostering creativity in Physics were the prospects in teaching Physics underscored by this investigation.

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Title: Modeling of an Industrial Wastewater Treatment System Using Historical Process Data
Name: IAN KIT NEHEMIAH M. DAP-OG, MM
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In this paper, the predictive capacity of a wastewater treatment process model was studied to find out how well the model works and to propose its use as a tool to help improve control of effluen t BO D (biochemica l oxyge n demand ) for the wastewater treatment facility being studied. The mathematical process model for the existing facility was obtained from literature with few added modifications to accommodate certain requirements of the actual setup. A Complete Mix Flow Reactor with recycle was assumed together with Monod and Contois growth models for the microbial growth kinetics assumptions. Using historical process data from the daily operations of the plant, model parameters were estimated and then verified using linear regression. The results of the study show that the use of historical process data posed some limitations to modeling that resulted to moderate correlations between observed and predicted values for effluent BOD except for the prediction of average MLSS. Despite these observations, it was found out that Monod-based model works better than the Contois-based model for the wastewater treatment system studied.

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Title: Science, Technology, Society and Environment (STSE) Approach in Environmental Science for Nonscience Students in a Local Culture
Name: BERNADETE I. DEL ROSARIO
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The STSE approach was used in teaching the environmental science course for nonscience students. Using activities derived from the local environment, a learning climate unique to the STSE approach was developed. It influence was determined on the academic achievement, environmental science self-efficacy and sociopolitical perspective of the students. Quantitative and qualitative designs were used in the study. An experimental design using Solomon\'s Four Group Design was used for the quantitative part, while observation and interview were used in the qualitative part. Effect on academic achievement was determined using two-way ANOVA on the posttest scores of four groups, while the effects on efficacy and sociocultural perspectives were determined through the t-test of weighted means. The STSE approach was found to be effective in improving the academic performance as well as the environmental science self-efficacy of the students. In the analysis of sociocultural perspectives, political and moral values are more dominant than the religious perspectives. The results of the study provide encouragement for all who want to depart from standard textbooks and course outlines. Student involvement in real world experiences should be encouraged more.

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Title: Extent of Escherichia Coli Contamination of Cagayan De Oro River and Factors Causing Contamination
Name: LESLEY CASAS LUBOS
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The study determined the extent of fecal contamination of Cagayan de Oro River stretching talong the nine (9) river barangays , sampling sites covered the upstream, midstream, and downstream areas. The Multiple Tube Fermentation Technique (MTFT) was used to identify the presence of total coliform, fecal coliform, and Escherichia coli in the water samples. The average total fecal coliform values obtained from all the sampling sites exceeded the acceptable value set by the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR)) , indicating fecal contamination of the river water quality guidelines at 1000 fecal coliform organisms/100 ml. Bonbon had the highest level of fecal contamination while Dansolihon had the lowest level of contamination. The factors that might have contributed to the river\'s fecal contamination were improper disposal of human and animal wastes into the river due to the unavailability of toilet facilities.

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Title: Organizational Components and the Four-Fold Functions of the Msu System Colleges of Agriculture
Name: Nida A. Ilupa, D.M.
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This research evaluated the effectiveness of the Mindanao State University System (MSUS) and its Colleges of Agriculture, as an educational institution that provides agricultural education. The study was conducted in 4 major campuses of the MSU System having well-established Colleges of Agriculture namely: MSU Marawi, MSU Maguindanao, MSU General Santos and MSU Sulu. The research design used is descriptive employing the survey technique. Supplemented by individual and group interviews. The non-random purposive sampling technique was utilized in the selection of college officials, faculty members and support staff as respondents. The data were analyzed and interpreted using the following statistical techniques: weighted mean, analysis of variance one way classification (F Test), and Multiple Linear Regression Analysis. The overall level of effectiveness in the performance of the four-fold functions is only \"Good\" while the overall assessment of its existing organizational components is Uncertain. There are significant differences in the ratings of the three groups in some of the functions while there are no significant differences in the ratings of all organizational components; and 3) Out of 11 indicators, two of them, Statement of the VMGO and, the Dissemination & Acceptability, turned out to have significant relationship with the performance effectiveness.

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Title: Solid Waste Management System Needs of a Suburban Community
Name: Richie Grace M. Lago
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This study aimed at determining the solid waste management system needs of Bayabas, Cagayan de Oro City, as basis for solid waste management program. The study assessed the solid waste management system needs in terms of handling and storage, collection, transfer and transport, processing, and disposal. This study utilized the descriptive survey method to determine the solid waste management system needs of Bayabas, Cagayan de Oro City. This barangay is one of the sources of contamination of Macajalar Bay because of its drainage system. Identifying the solid waste management system needs of this barangay will help address the problem of contamination of the Macajalar Bay. The barangay officials, SK officials, barangay health workers and zone leaders/residents of the barangay were the respondents of the study. The respondents\' moderate awareness of R.A. 9003 and receptiveness to solid waste management system will ensure their cooperation with the LGU officials in initiating the implementation of R.A. 9003. Likewise, the respondents\' moderate assessment of the barangay\'s solid waste management system needs in terms of handling and storage, collection, transfer and transport, processing, and disposal disclose a community interest in adopting the introduced solid waste management system for the protection of the residents\' health and the environment.

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Title: Mitigating Measures and Level of Preparedness against Risks and Disasters among Local Government Units
Name: Jofi V. Mahilum, Ph.D
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The study determined the mitigating measures and level of preparedness against risks and disasters among local government units in Region 10, Northern Mindanao, Philippines. The descriptive research design was used and supported by quantitative and qualitative approaches. in data analysis and interpretation. The 250 barangay captains of the provinces were the respondents selected through cluster sampling. The cluster sampling was used in the selection of the respondents. Two sets of data gathering tools were used namely: Likert-type questionnaire and Interview Guide. The statistical techniques used were the weighted mean and multiple regression analysis. The dominant political governance of the local government units is the proactive approach wherein all necessary mitigating measures are prepared in advance rather than making the preparations after the occurrence of risks and disasters. The most salient mitigating measures are risk/disaster prevention/reduction planning. Operationally, the LGUs are prepared on the best response against risk and disaster in terms of decisions and appropriate actions. However, the LGUs are only partially prepared in terms of availability of resources in the implementation of contingency plans, post-disaster recovery, and reconstruction activities. The LGUs level of preparedness against risks and disasters are significantly determined by proactive political governance and risk/disaster prevention/reduction planning.

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Title: Community Environmental Assessment of the Rehabilitation, Conservation and Protection of the Cagayan de Oro River
Name: Rosalina S. Huerbana, DM
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The study determined the environmental impact on the Cagayan de Oro River of the environmental projects as assessed by the river barangay communities of the 16 riverbank barangays of Cagayan de Oro City, the local officials of the government, the Local Government Units (LGUs) of the 16 riverbank barangays and the various agencies of the government. The projects assessed were dredging, aqua-culture, tree planting, and clean - up drive. As found out, these projects obtained very satisfactory assessment.This assessment indicates the projects\' positive environmental impact on the Cagayan de Oro River. Ensuring the full implementation and success of the projects is the active involvement of the river barangays. The participation of the various institutions in the different environmental projects clearly shows that Cagayan de Oro City has on its top agenda the preservation and protection of the Cagayan de Oro River. Vital to the sustainability of the projects are networking and people empowerment.

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Title: Microfinancing Program of City Social Welfare and Development Office
Name: EMILIANA J. LOZANO, DBA
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The study determined the impact of microfinancing program of the City Social Welfare and Development Office of Butuan City, Philippines on the beneficiaries\' social, economic, political, and spiritual development. The data were collected from random by sampled beneficiaries and purposively sampled CSWD employees using a researcher-made questionnaire. As found out, the CSWD microfinancing program improved the beneficiaries\' social, economic, political and spiritual development after availing of the microfinance program. As such, it is recommended that the financial assistance should be increased and that the mode of payment should be modified to maximize gain and sustain the beneficiaries\' project.

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Title: An Environmental Scanning of the IT-Enabled Business Process Outsourcing Industry in Cebu
Name: AGNES C. SEQUINO, MM
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This study focuses the data on the business environment of IT - Enabled Service Companies in the Business Process Outsourcing Industry in Cebu. The result of the environmental scanning activity presents high sustainability of suppliers and being highly profitable in terms of performance, however,BPO companies should be more adept with the latest trends in providing outsourced services and be ready with the uncertainties particularly in competitor\'s strategies. Government support the BPO Industry sub sectors. Government developmental plans should match with of the private sector to ensure collaboration of efforts to tap opportunities. This improves the economic situation of the country. The dominant factors affecting these businesses are socio-cultural and demographic factors, however they also highly affected by Technological factors despite the availability of infrastructure in Cebu, since most of the BPO companies are relying on the Internet access to operate. External environmental factors are perceived to vary depending upon the nature of the sub sector and the location of the business within the province. Growth of this BPO Industry can have a significant impact on employment and eventually on the purchasing power of people. However, participation of the academe is crucial in improving human capital to address the shortage of manpower pool for the industry.

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Title: Compliance with Corporate Governance Mechanisms among of Rural Banks
Name: MARIANO M. LERIN, Ph. D., CPA
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The study determined the compliance of rural banks with the corporate governance mechanisms. Using the descriptive method, the study surveyed 50 respondents through a researcher-made questionnaire. Statistical techniques include frequency, percentage and t-test. Majority of the rural banks are located in Misamis Oriental and established earlier than 2000. They have few branches with 6-15 employees and a starting capital of P500,000 below. The present capital is between P500,000 to P20,000,000 . Most rural banks complied with the corporate governance mechanisms such as Board Chairman\'s and members\' responsibilities and issuances of guidelines. Sex was a differentiating factor in the compliance to corporate governance mechanisms.

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Title: Effects of Mathematics Review on the Learning of High School Chemistry Concepts and on Problem Solving
Name: ENGR. DOMINIC T. POLANCOS
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This action research was conducted to elucidate the effectiveness of mathematics review in the learning of high school chemistry and in problem solving. The subjects were two randomly constituted class section in the third year chemistry program in Liceo de Cagayan University High School comprise the study sample. The study sought to find out whether the conduct of review of mathematics concepts would give better results in the performance of students problem-solving. Before starting the treatment; two similar tests were prepared as the pretest and posttest. At the end of the term, the post test was administered. Then, the statistical techniques of paired-sample t-test were utilized to analyze the collected data. Analysis of the results in the posttest revealed that there is no significan t differen ce between experimental group and control group.

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Title: Analysis of Errors in the Essays Written by Math, Science and Engineering Faculty
Name: Salvador dela Peña, MA
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This study analyzed the errors in writing frequently committed by the math, science, and engineering regular faculty of the Liceo de Cagayan University. The analysis of the essays was done by identifying the errors and categorizing them according to the grammar items and writing mechanics. The distribution of frequency and percentage were used to determine the order of errors. The tabulation included the actual number of usage and the number of correct and erroneous usage. As found out, the essays contained errors in grammar and punctuation, though relatively low. As ranked, the first five frequent errors were in the use of tenses, preposition, noun inflection, article, subject-verb agreement, and punctuation. Errors in conjunction, verb form, pronoun, and modifier (descriptive) were less frequent. The findings make language retooling program and other academic-related activities necessary in order for the faculty to achieve accuracy in the use of English.

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Title: Intellective Variables as Predictors to Nursing Licensure Examination Performance
Name: DONNA LOU E. NERI, RN, MHSS
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This study sought to determine possible factors which predict performance in the Nursing Licensure Examination (NLE). This is a descriptive, ex post facto research which utilized documentary analysis. Statistical techniques employed were the frequency, percentage, weighted mean, T-test and multiple regression analysis. NLE passers were usually those students who were performing well in the classroom, during clinical duties and even in the in-house review after graduation. In contrast, the non-passers are typically students who were performing poorly in these 3 areas. Both groups of students, specifically, have Medical-Surgical Nursing as their waterloo. Passers of the nursing licensure exam have higher intellective profile compared to the non-passers. Passers of the board exam performance, although they succeeded in hurdling the exam, got \"low passing\" scores (75-79). Scores are lowest in the areas of Curative Care which comprised Medical-Surgical Nursing topics. The student nurses\' attitude, knowledge and skills in nursing are learned in both the academic and clinical environments. These acquired attitude, knowledge and skills are supplemented by the intensive reviews given after graduation. Once students are performing well in these 3 areas of learning, they have a 55% chance of making it in the board exam.

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Title: Andragogy in the Use of Peer Reviewed (ISI) Research Literature in Graduate Courses
Name: GENARO V. JAPOS
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The study used the action research design involving 65 graduate students in two graduate classes handled by the researcher. A questionnaire was constructed and tested for reliability (.9876). The study found that the andragogy in the use of peer reviewed (ISI) research literature in graduate programs is effective in increasing the graduate students\' level of awareness and utilization of ISI materials for academic use and in developing the research skills. Exposure to ISI materials enhanced the graduate students\' general understanding of what constitutes quality research that passes international standards. The confidence and reliance of both graduate faculty and students on ISI materials safeguarded the quality of learning resources because these sources have been validated and cleared by global experts of the disciplines. The enabling mechanisms provided by Liceo de Cagayan University have contributed to the success of the andragogy and motivated both the faculty and students to use ISI sources. These mechanisms include ISI online subscription, training of faculty and students on how to access ISI materials, implementation of policy requiring ISI references for oral reports, critical review of literature, online feedback from authors, experiential paper, use of ISI sources in thesis/dissertation of students and faculty research, and use of journal full-text format in undergraduate thesis.

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Title: The Power to Influence and to Protect: Interconnectedness of the Human Bodies
Name: LILIAN C. DE LA PEÑA
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This paper presents interviews with Visayans found on Central Philippines and its indigenous people, the Ati, in order to discuss beliefs surrounding the human body. The belief on the energy (dungan among the Karay-a) of the human body to inflict sickness or pain to another body is dominant throughout the interviews, as well as religious rites officiated by specialists to heal and protect the ailing body from the debilitating effect of this energy. Urbanization fails to completely erode such traditional belief. This paper analyzes the role of a marginal indigenous people, the Ati, as provider of essential medicines to protect the human body from harm. This role cannot be undermined especially when one tries to make sense of how lowland Visayans practice animism simultaneous to their Catholic faith.

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Title: Manubo Matigsalug Dances of Sinuda, Kitaotao, Bukidnon
Name: Viberlino T. Yamut
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This study is part of an on-going attempt to retrieve and document ethnic dances among the tribal communities in Mindanao, in particular, those in the provinces of Bukidnon and Cotabato. As in his earlier researches, Mr. Yamut has immersed himself in the life of the community of the \"subject\" of his study in order to gather, firsthand, data regarding these ethnic dances, in this case, the Manubu Matigsalug dances of Sinuda, Kitaotao, Bukidnon.

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Title: The Library Interactive Pathfinder for Information Technology Program
Name: ANDREW P. PONTE, Ph.D and LINDA L. MONDOÑEDO, DM
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This study sought to develop an interactive pathfinder for the College of Information Technology of Liceo de Cagayan University to locate library resources for their students. The development of the courseware was primarily aimed at speeding online feedbacking and access to website. It used the water model in developing the courseware. The Unified Modeling Language (UML) was used to document the system flow, while the Hyper Text Markup Language (HTML) tag and Active Server Pages (ASP) was also used to code the machine instruction. The completed courseware enables the students to download easily the subject resources, promotes independent thinking among them, and allows the librarian/administrator to monitor the resources used by the students. Hence, this courseware is recommended for utilization to enhance instruction through online-facilitated research.

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