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UNP Research Journal

Title: In Vitro Antifungal Activity and Phytochemical Screening of Gouania javanica Miq. Leaves
Name: Alma B. Segismundo, MAEd, Petronila E. Florendo, MS Bio, Adonis Roman P. Pablico

Gouania javanica Miq. leaves were collected from the users in Nagbukel, Ilocos Sur. The plant was authenticated at the National Museum Botany Division, Manila (November 15, 2007, Control No. 578). The weighed 200 grams of fresh plant material were extracted with ethanol and concentrated to 20 ml.

Antifungal Assay of the extract. The following microorganisms were employed in the assay: Candida albicans, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Aspergillus niger. These were obtained from the culture collection of the Natural Science Research Institute (NSRI), University of the Philippines, Diliman, Quezon City.

Screening for antifungal activity. The Kirby-Bauer Disk Diffusion Method was used for this specific part. The Sabouraud agar plates were seeded with the inoculum using a sterile cotton swab. The entire surface of the agar was streaked evenly in all directions. The plates were incubated at room temperature for 72 hours, after which the diameter of the zones of inhibition were measured using a Vernier caliper. The antifungal testing was done in three replications.

Phytochemical analysis. The extracts were subjected to phytochemical screening to detect the presence of some secondary plant metabolites following standard procedures from the Chemistry and Pharmacological Division, Department of Science and Technology, Bicutan, Taguig City, Metro Manila. The leaf extract showed strong (+++) antifungal activity against Aspergillus niger with a mean diameter of zone of inhibition of 21.16 mm; moderate (++) antifungal activity against Candida albicans with a mean diameter of zone of inhibition of 12.08; and weak (+) antifungal activity against Tricophyton mentagrophytes with a mean diameter of zone of inhibition of 8.55.

Phytochemical analysis of the Gouania leaf extract revealed the presence of the following secondary metabolites: flavonoids, saponins, triterpenes, glycosides, and alkaloids. The presence of alkaloids which turned out to be moderate (++) is just a manifestation that this plant species can be a very good source of medicine. Since some of the 30 known alkaloids are used in medicine today, the researchers find it important that the specific type of alkaloid present in the leaves of the Gouania plant should be isolated in the near future. Further, flavonoids present in the leaves is an indication of the plant’s antiviral, antifungal, anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic activities (Capal, 1992). Saponins, triterpenes and glycosides are also very important compounds, thereby making this plant species a very good source of medicine and other important products.

Title: Mechanical Test of Concrete with Aggregates Hauled from Strategic Quarry Sites in Ilocos Sur
Name: Franklyn T. Amistad, MSCE

This study aimed to conduct a mechanical test of concrete with aggregates hauled from the strategic quarry sites in Ilocos Sur. There were three samples for each of the source of aggregates for the mechanical tests using the Universal Testing Machine. The compressive strength of cylinder concrete is below the allowable compressive ultimate strength set by the ASTM which is 3252 psi for 41- day old sample and 3186 psi for 37 days specimen. For the concrete hollow block samples, the compressive strength was above the allowable value set by the Philippine Trade Standard Specification of 350 psi. The flexural stress was above the 15 percent of 3000 psi which is 525 psi. Based on the findings the F-value of the different mechanical test is very much below the tabular F-value of 7.71 at 5 percent level of significance. With these findings, the researcher recommends that the physical test should be conducted to determine the cleanliness of the earth material and the other physical properties of the aggregates. The economic aspects shall be considered when choosing the source of aggregates and when producing concrete hollow blocks to maintain a higher compressive/crushing strength.

Title: The Effects of Rice Hull Ash on Ceramics Glaze
Name: Alfredo R. Rabena, Ph.D., Ronald N. Amano, Esteban T. de Peralta, Ed.D.

This study determined the effects of rice hull ash as particle designs of white wares constituting transparent base DT 24 at high firing temperature. The results of this study showed that rice hull can be used as designs on pre-fired white clay ceramics. Burned rice hull did not disappear at a firing temperature of 1,100oC in gas kiln. The mixture of rice hull ash and transparent base DT24 on white ware ceramics manifested clear dotted black and white designs on wares

Title: Phytochemical and Microbiological Testing of Makahiya (Mimosa pudica Linn.) Leaf Extract
Name: Susana P. Racadio, MST Chem/Physics, Gloria V. Molina, MST Chem, Rowena Tacla

This study was conceptualized to identify the chemical substances present in Makahiya and test its microbiological potentials. It is with hope that this study may provide bench mark information for further studies of makahiya as alternative medicine.

This study primarily aimed to analyze phytochemically and microbiologically the leaves of Makahiya plant (Mimosa pudica Linn).

Results of the phytochemical screening indicate that makahiya leaves contained flavonoids as shown by the formation of magenta red solution, triterpenes as indicated by the presence of red color in solution in Liebermann-Burchard Test and glycosides manifested by the formation of brick red precipitate when the extract was subjected to Fehling’s Test.

The Kirby-Bauer Disk Diffusion Method showed that makahiya leaf extract possesses a very strong antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus on and Bacillus subtilis. However, the makahiya leaf extract showed negative inhibitions activity against Candida albicans.

It was also found out that a significant difference exists between and among the zones of inhibition of the three test organisms subjected to makahiya leaf extract. It is therefore recommended that phytochemical substances present in makahiya leaves be isolated and purified to obtain their maximum therapeutic potentials; the sensitivity of other bacterial and fungal strains to the plants must be tested and pharmacological assay on the plant should be done.

Title: Performance of the Different Varieties of Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) Using Kakawate (Gliricidia sepium) Leaves as Mulching Material
Name: Floraceli R. Rodillas, MATPA

The study was conducted from September to December 2007 in Naglaoa-an, Sto. Domingo, Ilocos Sur. It aimed to compare the response of the different varieties of cucumber using kakawate leaves as mulching material and to determine the yield performance of promising varieties of cucumber.

The variety trials were laid out in a Randomly Complete Block Design (RCBD) with four replications and they are as follows: Variety 1 – Ilocos White, Variety 2 – Batangas White, Variety 3 – Poinsett 76, and Variety 4 – Governor (Hybrid).

Based on the four varieties of cucumber harvested, there were significant differences on the yield. Poinsett 76 yielded the best result with a total harvest of 38,047.62 kg/ha, followed by Batangas white and Governor (hybrid) with total harvests of 32,600.00 and 23,200.00 kg/ha respectively. Ilocos white had the lowest yield, 9,847.61 kg/ha.

Yield differences were attributed to varietals differences and potentials because all the varieties were planted in the same soil with the same climatic condition.

Title: Preliminary Study on the Polyculture of Sea Urchin (Tripneustes gratilla) and Sea Cucumber (Actinopyga spp.) in Concrete Tan
Name: Jessy A. Corrales, Emerson C. Tuban

This experimental study was undertaken to assess the growth performance and monitor the survivorship of sea urchin (Tripneustes gratilla) and sea cucumber (Actinopyga spp.) polycultured in tank. It was conducted at the UNP-Marine Resources Development Center in Nalvo, Sta. Maria, Ilocos Sur from October 2005 to February 2006.

Two hundred (200) juvenile sea urchins and two hundred (200) juvenile sea cucumbers collected from the wild were stocked in a 10-ton capacity concrete tank filled with 4-ton sea water and provided with enough aeration. These were fed with Sargassum spp (aragan) twice a week. Cleaning of the tank as well as regular water change was also done.

The initial average body weight (g), test diameter (cm), and test height (cm) of sea urchins as well as the initial average body weight (g) of sea cucumbers were recorded. To monitor the growth performance of the experimental organisms, the monthly increases in the aforementioned parameters were monitored and recorded. In addition, the final number of stocks left after the four-month culture periods were also recorded and the percentage (%) survivorship were computed.

Results on the growth performance of sea urchins showed that the highest increase in weight of 29.02g (74.83% growth increment) was observed on the second month of culture period while the lowest increase of 8.73g (12.88%) was observed during the third month. In terms of mean monthly increase in test diameter, the highest mean increase of 1.22cm (38.73%) was observed during the first month; while the lowest mean was observed during the last month with 0.10cm (1.69%).

Data on the mean monthly increase in test height showed that the highest mean monthly increase of 0.82 cm (43.62%) was recorded during the first month, while the lowest mean was noted during the fourth month with 0.09cm (2.49%).

On the other hand, data on the growth performance of sea cucumber revealed that the mean monthly increase in body weight (g) and growth increment (%) of sea cucumbers was highest (12.02g or 39.18%) during the first month while the lowest (3.17g or 6.09%) was recorded during the fourth month of culture period. Results further showed that the percentage survivorship of sea urchin and sea cucumber after four-month culture period were 98% and 100%, respectively.

From the above findings, it was concluded that there is a high growth performance and survivorship of sea urchin and sea cucumber polycultured in tank. Considering the high performance and survivorship of these organisms, this activity is recommended as a management tool for these echinoderms. It is further recommended that similar study using higher stocking density for sea urchin and sea cucumber should be undertaken to fully maximize the culture area. A comparative study on the monoculture and polyculture of these echinoderms both in grow-out and in tanks should be undertaken so as to have a more comprehensive analysis of data. Furthermore, since sea cucumbers are known as substrate feeders, the tank should be overlaid with sand as its substrate. Production technologies such as sea urchin and sea cucumber hatchery should be developed in the province to have an access for juveniles needed for culture.

Title: Characterizing the Environmental Effects of the Quarrying Industry: The Case of Strategic Quarry Sites in the Ilocos Region
Name: Norma A. Esguerra, MEM, DPA, Franklyn T. Amistad, MSCE, Alfredo R. Rabena, Ph.D.

This study tried to identify the environmental effects of quarrying in the identified quarry sites of Region 1 chosen at random, specifically at a geologic perspective. It further tried to discover the socio-economic benefits they provided to the residents of adjacent and nearby barangays within the provinces of Ilocos Sur, Ilocos Norte, La Union, and Pangasinan; and solicited their perceptions on the pressing effect(s) of the industry.

Four types of quarrying were found in Ilocos Sur, namely: clay extraction at Bulala, Vigan City; gravel quarrying at Banaoang, Bantay, and at Bio Tagudin; sand quarrying at Namruangan, Cabugao and at Libtong, Tagudin; and mountain quarrying at Nalvo, Sta. Maria. The quarry sites mentioned were described to be from excessive to highly excessive.

In Ilocos Norte, the researchers noted three types of quarrying: clay extraction at Sta. Monica, San Nicolas; sand quarrying at Paoay; and gravel extractions at Bengcag, Barangays IV and XV, Laoag City, as well as in Bacarra. Meanwhile, quarrying is banned at Bengcag, Laoag City. A shift in the original course of the San Cristobal, Sarrat River has been confirmed by the residents. They attributed the rerouted course of the river to the continuous unplanned gravel extraction therein.

In La Union, three quarry types were noted; gravel extraction at Sudipen and Rosario, sand extraction at Rimos 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5, Luna, La Union; and rounded peebles. The quarry operations were assessed to be excessive.

In Pangasinan, the researchers noted sand and gravel extractions at Bugallon; and gravel extractions at Labrador, Anonang, San Fabian, and San Jacinto.

The observed physical changes or environmental effects of the quarrying operations were: a) for sand quarrying: weakened soil cohesion leading to sand dune collapse and air pollution during windy and stormy days; b) for gravel quarrying: widened mouth of the river leading to a widened downstream flow and diverted water course, c) for earth extraction: uneven ground elevation permitting water to be impounded during the rainy season, and worst, the cause of flooding for neighboring barangays; and d) for mountain quarrying: triggered land slide and thinning water reserve.

The mitigations were concentrated mostly on more extensive regulatory schemes: for the DENR to regulate the quarrying operations, more strict monitoring of hauling permittees, and rectification of damaged sites by environmental interventions.

Title: Fertility Problems Associated With Pesticide Use Among Farmers in Metro Vigan
Name: Larguita P. Reotutar, Ed.D., Gemma Agnes R. Supnet, MST., Ma. Nina R. Eder, MATHEd.

The study primarily aimed to determine the fertility problems associated with pesticide use among farmers in the municipalities of Metro Vigan. It also sought to determine the socio-demographic profile of the respondents like age, occupation, educational attainment, monthly income; pesticide-related factors like distance of farm from the house and the frequency of exposure to pesticides; the common pesticidas used by the farmers and the level of practice of the farmers on the correct use of pesticidas and the relationship between the fertility problems and the seto f variables mentioned.

The study involved 133 female farmers from the different municipalities of Metro Vigan. A questionnaire checklist was the main instrument used in the gathering of data used in the study. Purposive sampling was used in selecting the samples used in the study. Frequency, percentage, mean and simple correlational analysis were the statistical tools used to treat the data.

Based from the findings, the following conclusions were drawn: the respondents are between 40-44 years old, farmers by occupation, have finished high school level and college level and have a monthly income between 15,001 – 20,000. The respondents have houses situated less than 1 km from the farm and are “Sometimes” (with 4-6 months period) exposed to pesticides.

The most common pesticides used are lanate, karate, serin, atabron pinnate, decis and biodan.

There is a “high” level of practice of farmers on the correct use of pesticides.

On fertility problems, there is a minimal level of problems since the respondents have 3-4 pregnancies, have delivered their babies in full term, have 3-4 live births, did not suffer abortion, have 1-2 years birth interval of their children and have minimal number of children with physical defects.

There is a “very low” occurrence of the common symptoms of pregnancy among mothers.

On the correlation between fertility problems and the other given set of variables, the following were found to be significantly related:

On socio-demographic variables, age is significantly related to gravidity, parity and live births. There is also a significant relationship between educational attainment and gravidity, parity, live births, and birth interval. There is a significant relationship between occupation and common symptoms during pregnancy.

On pesticide-related factors, there is a significant relationship between distance from farm and the common symptoms during pregnancy. There is also a significant relationship between frequency of exposure to pesticides and the common symptoms during pregnancy.

The level of practice is also significantly related to abortion.

Title: Emergency/Disaster Preparedness and Management Extension Service Program of the College of Nursing
Name: Julieta T. Guinid, MAN, Myra Vicenta A. Abigania, MAN

The study determined the level of awareness and implementation of Emergency/Disaster Preparedness and Management Extension Service Program of the UNP-College of Nursing among residents of Lidlidda, Ilocos Sur during the calendar year 2007. It also looked into the profile of the respondents and correlated it with their level of awareness and implementation.

The respondents of this study were 106 beneficiaries of the CN Extension Service Program comprising of 70.68% of the total population of all the respondents.

The descriptive method of research was utilized. The data were gathered through the use of questionnaire coupled with documentary analysis. The data gathered were analyzed using frequency, percentage, mean and Chi-square (x2) test.

The salient findings of the study are as follows: more than half of the respondents are females (53.77%), married (52.83%), and within the age bracket of 31-50 years old (64.26%); majority of the respondents are educated with 24.54% who are high school graduates; 18.87% college level and 24.91% college graduates; the respondents have varied occupation with almost 1/3 (29.26%) who are engaged in farming.

The level of awareness of the respondents on emergency/disaster preparedness and management is ¡§very high¡¨ as shown by a ¡§very high¡¨ level of awareness on preparedness and management of wounds (ÈV=3.20), drowning (ÈV=3.34), heart attack (ÈV=3.28), electrocution (ÈV=3.30), gunshot or stab wounds (ÈV=3.33), severe bleeding (ÈV=3.45), burns (ÈV=3.33), poisoning (ÈV=3.40), seizure (ÈV=3.46), dog bite (ÈV=3.36), snake bite (ÈV=3.38) and fracture (ÈV=3.46). A ¡§high¡¨ level of awareness was also exhibited in the preparedness and management of nose bleeding (ÈV=2.68), fainting (ÈV=3.08), insect bite (ÈV=2.92) and choking (ÈV=3.17).

On the other hand, the respondents exhibited a ¡§very high¡¨ level of implementation in the preparedness and management of nose bleeding (ÈV=3.29) and insect bites (ÈV=3.88) only. A ¡§high¡¨ level was observed in fainting (ÈV=2.87), wounds (ÈV=2.94), choking (ÈV=2.78), dog bite (x=3.11) and snake bite (ÈV =2.76). Mean scores of 2.15, 1.88 and 2.0 showed an ¡§average¡¨ level of implementation in the preparedness and management of heart attack, seizure and fracture respectively. A ¡§low¡¨ level was exhibited in drowning (ÈV=1.34), burns (ÈV=1.48), and poisoning (ÈV=1.35) and ¡§very low¡¨ in gunshot or stab wounds (ÈV=0.64).

Chi-square results showed that the age significantly influenced the respondents¡¦ level of awareness on emergency/disaster preparedness and management of fainting (17.2), insect bites (21.3), chocking (18.3), severe bleeding (14.6), poisoning (15.7) and seizures/epilepsy (17.6); sex on severe bleeding (15.3); educational attainment on fever (16.3), gunshot wounds (19.3), severe bleeding (20.1), poisoning (212), and seizures/epilepsy (15.8); and civil status on nose bleeding (13.5), gunshot wounds (21.5), severe bleeding (18.7) and poisoning (13.6) at 0.05 probability level. The occupation of the respondents has no bearing on their level of awareness.

There is significant relationship between age and the level of implementation on emergency/disaster preparedness and management of nose bleeding (24.3), insect bites (20.5), and snake bites (15.7); sex on severe bleeding (22.8;, educational attainment on fever (20.4) and poisoning (18.3); and civil status on insect bites (22.7), and choking (18.5). Occupation did not influence at all in the level of implementation.

Based on the conclusions, the following recommendations are forwarded: a follow-up training should be conducted to further develop the skills of the people and reiterate the importance/significance of implementing and applying what they learned to cope with the advancing technology; similar extension program should be conducted in other upland municipalities to enhance their capabilities in disaster preparedness and management, and a copy of the result of the study should be given to the municipal mayor of Lidlidda to further assess his program on disaster preparedness and management as basis for budget allocation on such program.

Title: Prototyping of a Mechanized Bagoong Squeezer
Name: Dr. Manuel Bajet Jr, Engr. Norma Esguerra

The high demand for bagoong keeps the processing as one of the established industries of Region 1. Its presence in every home justifies its indispensability to the Ilocano cuisine.

This prototyping project surfaced from an expressed need of one bagoong processor from Santa, Ilocos Sur. The designed machine has a capacity of 24 liters. It has several parts: a) a perforated cylindrical bucket with paddle which carries the fish substrate, b) a one-directional motor, ¼ hp capacity, c) the casing which houses the bucket and the motor, and d) its accessories: the electrical controls and faucets . The cylindrical bucket spins at an approximate speed of 1700 rpm.

Three (3) models were constructed. To document the comparative performance per model, the ANOVA was done. All three models manifested significant results. From the usual squeezing time ranging from 30 to 45 minutes, then followed by another 15 minutes for bottling with the manual method , the first model did both squeezing and bottling in 5min, 24 seconds, while the 3rd model further improved to 3 minutes, 6 seconds.

In conclusion, the designed machine satisfied the requirements of the cooperator, but did not satisfy the requirements of the Pangasinan bagoong processors. It is then recommended that a higher capacity of motor and more complicated design to take care of other concerns be adopted to meet Pangasinan’s export requirement.

Title: Performance of Barangays in Vigan City
Name: Edelyn A. Cadorna, Ph.D., Crescencio B. Velasco, MPA, MBA

This study assessed the performance of the barangays in Vigan City in terms of livelihood programs initiated, economic enterprises, health programs assisted, organizations organized, garbage collection and disposal system, and revenue. The influence of input variables on the performance of the barangays was likewise looked into in this study.

The descriptive research design was utilized in the study. The respondents were comprised of the Punong Barangay, the Barangay Secretary, and five other residents in the 39 barangays of Vigan City. The questionnaire used in the study was based on the Barangay Performance and Productivity Monitoring System (BPPMS), which was constructed by the Local Government Academy (LGA). The said instrument was supported by interviews with the barangay residents, ocular inspections of equipment and tangible projects/programs, and documentary analysis. Data gathered in the study were analyzed through the use of the following statistical tools: frequency and percentage, mean, and Multiple Regression Analysis.

Findings showed that majority of the barangays in Vigan City have a population density of 3658 per sq-km and a household density of 795 per sq-km. All the barangays have planning policies and guidelines. Most of these barangays have annual budget ranging from PhP500,000–PhP600,000; majority have moderately adequate equipment and service vehicles. In addition, almost all the barangays are responsive in issuing barangay clearances and certificates. Majority of the barangays also hold regular barangay assemblies twice a year.

The barangays in Vigan City have maintained barangay facilities. They have initiated only few barangay economic enterprises, have assisted in national health programs, have organized barangay committees and councils, and have implemented a garbage collection and disposal system.

On the aspect of barangay performance in terms of revenue, the barangays produced only minimal amount. They still depend on the Internal Revenue Allocation (IRA) to run the barangay.

The performance of the barangays was found to have been affected by the adequacy of non-human resources like barangay equipment and service vehicles, as well as the responsiveness of the barangay in the issuance of barangay certificates.


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