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NVSU Research Journal

Title: NVSU RESEARCH JOURNAL
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Title: Kinetics of CO2 Evolution, Soil Microbial Biomass Carbon, and Mineral-Associated Organic Carbon of a Tropical Soil Applied with Organic Matter
Name: WA Dumale, Jr., T Miyazaki, T Nishimura and K Seki
Abstract:

The organic carbon of 53 ?m particle size is mineral-associated organic carbon (MAOC), a stable soil organic matter (SOM) pool described by the CENTURY SOM model. In a 110-day laboratory incubation experiment, we studied the effect of fresh organic matter (FOM) application: 0 (control); 1.81 g leaf litter (LL) carbon kg-1; and 2.12 g (chicken manure (CM) carbon kg-1 in the MAOC, carbon dioxide (CO2) evolution, and soil microbial biomass carbon (SMBC) of the 0–5- and 5–20-cm layers of a soil from Bagabag, Nueva Vizcaya, Philippines (121°15’E, 16°35’N).

CO2 evolution rate was significantly higher in the 0–5- than in the 5–20-cm layer and decreased with time, peaking 3 days after FOM application. CM application significantly increased CO2 evolution rate and cumulative CO2 evolution in both 0–5- and 5–20-cm layers. Cumulative CO2 evolutions in the LL-applied and control soils were statistically comparable.

SMBC was significantly higher in 0–5- than in 5–20-cm layer. CM application increased SMBC significantly compared to control and LL treatments. SMBC was higher at time periods 13 and 70 days after incubation (DAI) regardless of

FOM treatment, indicating the presence of microbial energy in said periods. FOM application significantly improved MAOC, and in agreement with previous studies, but our findings provide evidence of stable C turnover from MAOC in the short-term, challenging the convention that only labile SOC is involved in microbial CO2 evolution from soils.

Keywords: mineral-associated organic carbon, soil microbial biomass carbon, soil organic, carbon, CO2 evolution
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Title: Assessment of Government-Assisted Fruit Processing Enterprises in Nueva Vizcaya
Name: JB Leid and CR Salvosa
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This study assessed the effects of government intervention to sales, profit, and market share of fruit processing enterprises in Nueva Vizcaya.

Majority of the respondents strongly agreed that government interventions such as skills development and capacity building, product development, and financial assistance equipped and transformed them into an efficient and productive business unit. This resulted in 17 % increase on the average sales, a 23 % increase in profit despite the moderate increase in sales, and an increase of Php 625, 401.4 for total assets and capital from 2004-2006. There was a fluctuating trend for market share, which could be explained by the stiff competition in the industry. Educational attainment of fruit processors significantly affected sales, profit and market share. Government intervention was significantly associated with production process, nutritional analysis and acquisition of fruit processing equipment.

Keywords: fruit processing, production, sales profile
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Title: Occurrence of Nematode-Trapping Fungi in Goat (Capra hircus) and Sheep (Ovis aries)
Name: SC Valencia, L G Torres and JI Yago
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Fecal samples of goat and sheep were collected at Valencia Farm, Maria Clara, Diffun, Quirino to determine the occurrence of nematode-trapping fungi in goat and sheep and evaluated which fecal samples with fungal growth exhibited potential nematode-trapping and lysing effects. The isolated fungi and their mode of parasitism were also characterized.

All samples were positive for fungal growth. Six nematodetrapping fungi species were identified namely; Arthrobotrys oligospora, A. dactyloides, A. superba, Catenaria anguillula, Nematoctonus concurrens and Stylopage hadra. Three species were found effective as trapping fungi. A. oligospora which exhibited a lysing effect with the most number of trapping effect on nematode larvae; A. dactyloides that formed constricting rings to trap nematode; and C. anguillula which produced uniflagellate zoospores to parasitize the nematode.

Keywords: nematode, nematophagous fungi
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Title: Comparative Hybrid Detection Efficiency of Rf-Linked and Non-Rf-Linked Markers in Rice (Oryza sativa)
Name: DP Noveno and E A Sana
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The study was conducted to compare hybrid detection efficiency of molecular markers that are either linked or not-linked to a fertility restorer (Rf) gene in two commercially released public hybrids, Mestizo 1 and Mestizo 3.

Four simple sequence repeats (SSR) markers amplifying polymorphic alleles (distinct bands) in the parents were selected. Two of these markers, RM110 and RM490, were specific to Mestizo 1, while the other two, RM263 and RM171, to Mestizo 3. RM490 and RM171 are linked to a fertility restore gene, while RM110 and RM263 are not Rf-linked. RM110 and RM490 were highly efficient in detecting all introduced contaminants both in the 10 x 10 and in the 20 x 20 deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) sampling lay-outs for Mestizo 1 hybrid seedlings. Even contaminants not introduced the seed lot were detected by both markers, indicating their usefulness in hybrid seed purity analysis. Individual mean marker efficiency values of 96.23% and 95.51% were calculated for RM110 and RM490, respectively, suggesting comparative efficiency between Rf-linked and non-Rf-linked markers in hybrid and contaminant detection.

In the case of Mestizo 3, RM263 and RM171 were also highly efficient with mean marker efficiency values of 91.82 % and 93.54 % respectively. This also indicates comparative efficiency of Rf-linked and non-Rf-linked markers in hybrid and contaminant detection. Diagnostic alleles of RM110 and RM490 can be resolved in 8 % non-denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. RM171 is also a marker candidate for hybrid seed purity analysis for Mestizo 3 because its amplified alleles can be resolved using 2 % agarose gels. These markers can be useful in high throughout procedures for seed purity testing.

The use of at least two highly informative markers (Rf-linked or non-Rf-linked) which can amplify polymorphic loci in the parents and detect the alleles in the hybrid may provide a more efficient system for seed purity analysis than the use of a single marker. The identification of the four SSR markers in the study is a significant step towards developing marker systems for hybrid seed purity analysis as a fast and viable alternative to the time consuming, conventional hybrid grow-out tests.

Keywords: hybrid, hybrid detection, molecular markers, Mestizo
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Title: Rooting of Yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius) Using Main Stem in Different Rooting Media
Name: JD Angayon, YT Castañeto and ET Castañeto
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The study was conducted to determine the best rooting media for yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius) using its main stem. Treatments were as follows: Treatment 1: pure garden soil; Treatment 2: pure sand; Treatment 3: sand and soil at 1:1 ratio; Treatment 4: sand and vermicompost at 2:1 ratio. Results revealed that any of the rooting media can be used in rooting yacon cuttings. However, cuttings grown in pure sand had longer adventitious roots compared to the other treatments.

Keywords: yacon, rooting media, cuttings
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Title: Profile of Traditional Rice Cultivars and their Culture in Nueva Vizcaya
Name: JA Andal and EA Sana
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Five traditional rice varieties (TRVs) are grown in Nueva Vizcaya: Bungkitan, Raminad, Wagwag Pino, Wagwag Paran, and Wagwag Magasal. TRVs are planted once a year in September or October and harvested in February or March. TRVs production in the lowlands use inorganic fertilizers and chemical pesticides, though at lower rates. In the highlands of Kasibu, farmers apply only organic fertilizers and no chemical pesticides. Farmers in both agroecosystems cultivate TRVs for market and home consumption and not for varietal conservation. Other benefits of growing TRVs like less use of input, resistance to pests, and good eating quality are also reasons why farmers grow TRVs.

The five TRVs are late maturing up to 150 days. Yield levels ranged from 3.0 to 3.5 t ha-1 in the lowlands and 2.0-2.5 t ha-1 in the highlands. All TRVs are tall and are susceptible to lodging. Low shattering of grains in Bongkian and Raminad was a good trait for minimizing grain losses at harvest. Fresh harvest is sold usually in a straight-buying scheme involving local traders. Part of harvest intended for seeds is dried and stored under ambient temperature for a period of 5-6 months. A very good seed selection practice for maintaining varietal purity for Raminad is noted from one farmer in Villaverde.

The TRVs showed moderate to high resistance to bacterial leaf blight (BLB) and rice blast. Wagwag Magasal showed resistance to BLB Race 3 and rice blast and moderate resistance to the most virulent BLB Race 6 and rice tungro virus (RTV). This marked level of resistance found among the TRVs has profound implications on the value of on-farm conservation where landraces continually evolve and adapt with pest dynamics in the natural environment. All TRVs have good grain quality characteristics that passed recommended standards in physical attributes and milling potentials. This justifies the high market values of grains of TRVs. Present concerns have to focus on promoting on-farm conservation, refinements of products from grains already acceptable in the market, and exploration of new products to sustain use of TRVs.

Keywords: traditional varieties, cultivars
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Title: Efficacy of Ganoderma (Ganoderma lucidum Karst )as Fungal Biofeed for Grow-out Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) Under Controlled Environment
Name: AM Villamor and JP Cabrera
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A feeding experiment was conducted to evaluate the growth performance of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fingerlings fed with Ganoderma (Ganoderma lucidum) as a protein source. Three treatments were laid out in Completely Randomized Design (CRD) and replicated four times: T1: 68-82 % rice bran and 31.18 % fish meal; T2: 39.58 % rice bran, 45.32 % Ganoderma and 15-11 % fish meal; and T3: 100 % Ganoderma. The absence or addition of Ganoderma as fungal biofeed on the ration of Nile tilapia fingerlings did not affect average final weight, gain in weight, relative feed consumption, relative feed conversion ratio, and growth rate of the fingerlings. Average survival rate of Nile tilapia fingerlings improved with increased level of Ganoderma fed. Average survival rate of 80 % was obtained by fingerlings fed with 100 % Ganoderma (T3). Nile tilapia stocks fed with 100 % Ganoderma had the highest return on investment value of 49.93 % indicating the profitability of using Ganoderma as fungal biofeed for grow-out tilapia.

Keywords: Nile Tilapia, fingerlings, fish meal
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