E-International Scientific Research Journal Consortium

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E-International Scientific Research Journal

Title: Rainwater Harvesting, Quality Assessment And Utilization In Region I
Name: Adriano T. Esguerra, Antonio E. Madrid and Rodolfo G. Nillo
Don Mariano Marcos Memorial State University
Bacnotan, La Union
Abstract:

The project harnessed the potential of house rooftops as rainwater harvesters for household use, principally as drinking water. It likewise assessed the system’s technical soundness, environmental dimensions, economic feasibility as well as its social and political acceptability. Technically, the rainwater harvesting system consisting of rooftops, gutters, down spouts, filter and storage tank is capable of collecting/impounding rainwater to supply and support the drinking water needs of 8-12 members of the family throughout the six-month dry period (January-June) of the year. In terms of rainwater microbiological quality, total coliforms and Escherichia coli were of low concentrations (i,e., less than 1.1 MPN/100 ml) meeting the allowable limits set by the Philippine National Standards for Drinking Water (PNSDW). Other quality and aesthetic characteristics of collected/stored rainwater such as the presence of inorganic and organic substances through total dissolved solids as well as its total hardness adequately met the PNSDW values indicating potability of the harvested rainwater. The harvester is economically feasible especially so if construction materials would be limited to locally available ones. Economic analysis showed that the cost of the rainwater harvesting system could be recovered in two years at most. Cost of the system could be significantly lower if more than three families would share in the construction and that the harvested rainwater would be utilized for purposes other than for drinking. Demonstrating the importance of the system to the community, neighboring families were convinced that it provided water for drinking purposes microbiologically safer than the existing water they have been drinking for years. Result of the survey confirmed the desire of the community to put up similar system as they stressed that their health is of paramount importance and subscribed that the construction cost is not an issue at all. Local government units were likewise of the perception that the system would work in the locality and that they are willing to support the initiative of making the system an important and innovative part of their development plan.

Keywords: water, water scarcity, rainwater harvesting
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Title: Short-Term Dynamics of the Active and Passive Soil Organic Carbon Pools in a Volcanic Soil Treated With Fresh Organic Matter
Name: Wilfredo A. Dumale, Jr.1, 2, , Tsuyoshi Miyazaki 2, Taku Nishimura 2 and Katsutoshi Seki3
1 Department of Plant Science, Nueva Vizcaya State University, Bayombong 3700, Nueva Vizcaya, Philippines
2 Department of Biological and Environmental Engineering, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 1-1-1 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8657 Japan
3 Faculty of Business Administration, Toyo University, 5-28-20 Hakusan, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 112-8606, Japan
Abstract:

In a 110-day constant temperature experiment (20° C), we determined the effect of fresh organic matters (FOM): 0 (control); 1.81 g leaf litter (LL) carbon kg-1; and 2.12 g chicken manure (CM) carbon kg-1 in the stable soil organic carbon [mineral-associated organic carbon (MAOC)], labile soil organic carbon [soil microbial biomass carbon (SMBC)], and carbon dioxide (CO2) evolution of a volcanic ash soil from Tsumagoi, Gunma Prefecture, Japan (138°30’ E, 36°30’ N). Overall, CO2 evolution and SMBC increased after the treatment of soil with FOM, whereas MAOC decreased below its original level three days after FOM application. These data support the view that fresh OM promotes increases in SMBC and CO2 in the rapidly cycling active carbon pool and further suggest that the MAOC fraction, though stable as conventionally believed, can be a source of CO2. Our findings challenge the convention that only labile SOC is the source of short-term CO2 evolution from soils.

Keywords: mineral-associated organic carbon, soil microbial biomass carbon, soil organic carbon, CO2 evolution
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Title: Successional Changes in Herb Vegetation Community in an Age Series of Restored Mined Land- A Case Study of Uttarakhand India
Name: Shikha Uniyal Gairola* Dr. (Mrs.) Prafulla Soni**
Forest Ecology and Environment Division Forest Research Institute, Dehradun, Uttarakhand, India
Abstract:

Present study was done with an objective to study the successional changes in herbaceous vegetation in an age series of restored mined land and also analyzes them by subjecting the vegetation data to cluster analysis. Succession is a slow process naturally and in the absence of human interventions and aid, disturbed areas such as abandoned surface-mined sites proceed through a process of primary succession, which carries important implications for long term site stability, soil fertility, and compositional changes in vegetation and plant productivity. In the field of ecology, community composition changes over time. The study of succession addresses this change, which is influenced by the environment, biotic interactions and dispersal. The present study was carried out in an age series of 23, 22, 21 and 20 years old mine restored sites at Dehradun district in Uttarakhand and an adjoining natural forest was also studied for comparison of composition of herbs in all sites. The results of the study reveals that with widespread distribution and dominance of some of the prominent naturals invaders as component of both - the mined sites as well as the undisturbed natural site, the final composition of the community at the restored sites are compiled solely from the existing population of the species and the succession on restored area results in the similar community as that found on undisturbed forest in the same vicinity.

Keywords: Age series; Community composition; Natural invaders; Restored mined land Site; stability; Succession; Undisturbed forest;
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Title: Biofertilizers in Action: Contributions of BNF in Sustainable Agricultural Ecosystems
Name: A.M., Ellafi,1 Gadalla, A2 and Galal2, Y.G.M.
1Biotechnology Research Center, Tripoli, Libya
2Atomic Energy Authority, Nuclear Research Center, Soil and Water Research Department, Abou-Zaabl, 13759, Egypt.
Abstract:

Biofertilizers are considered to be cost effective, ecofriendly and renewable sources of plant nutrients supplementing chemical fertilizers in sustainable agricultural systems. This refers to microorganisms, which increase crop growth through different mechanisms, i.e. biological nitrogen fixation, growth-promoting or hormonal substances increased availability of soil nutrients. Their importance lies in their ability to supplement/ mobilize soil nutrients with minimal use of non-renewable resources and as components of integrated plant nutrient systems. The most important group of biofertilizers that have played vital role of maintaining soil fertility in agriculture via BNF process. Contributions of BNF through the application of different nitrogen fixing microorganisms (biofertilizers groups) were estimated under different environmental conditions given using isotopic (15N isotope dilution) and non-isotopic (N difference) methods. Symbiotic plant-microbe interactions such as Rice-Azolla, Legume-Rhizobium either prennial crops or fixing trees were examined on field and greenhouse experiments. Similarly, free-living or associative N2 fixing microorganisms were evaluated for potential N2 fixation with non-legumes, i.e. rice, maize, barely and wheat. Also, growth-promoting effect was considered for plants, particularly cereal crops inoculated with diazotrophs and/or arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi (VAM). Such microflora have the ability to provide considerable amounts of sparing nutrients especially P in rhizoplane of inoculated plants. Application of 15N tracer techniques gave us a chance to confirm some of the mechanisms responsible for enhancement of plant growth and nutrient acquisition. From our viewpoint, it is important to encourage the use of biofertilizers especially under circumstances of lacks in soil and water resources like we have in our region and in the same time, to spread out the concept of low input agriculture to the poor farmers. Therefor, there is a need to develop reliable biofertilizers with scientifically defined modes of action and incorporating BNF to maximize their efficacy.

Keywords: Agro-ecosystems, Biofertilizers, BNF, Isotopic techniques
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Title: In Vivo Fluorescence Imaging Of Fruit Fly With Soluble Quantum Dots
Name: Tapas K. Mandal, Nragish Parvin and Mitali Saha
Department of Chemistry, National Institute of Technology Agartala, Agartala- 799055, India
Abstract:

The ability of multi colour fluorescence imaging with water soluble carbon quantum dots (WSCQDs) in organisms and biological tissues has been explored using Drosophila melanogaster (fruit flies). Here we present strategies to visualize different developmental stages and their various internal organs in vivo and in vitro condition with multiple, distinct colors. Their viability and growth were not reduced by oral quantum dots ingestion. We demonstrate a new methodology in the field of bioimaging by using synthesized water soluble carbon quantum dots (WSCQDs) that will bring a revolution in the history of biomedical science.

Keywords: Noninvasive, bioimaging, carbon, quantum dots, water soluble, fruit fly
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Title: Seaweed Bath Soap Product Formulation and Development
Name: Rogelio M. Estacio
Abstract:

The process of making bath soap comprises the following steps: preparation of alkaline solution; preparation of seaweed gel, papaya (Carica papaya Linn), atsuete (Bixa orellana Linn) and coconut oil as primary ingredients of the product, and mixing these ingredients to produce a thick solution, pouring the solution into the molder, cooling and solidifying the solution at room temperature, aging , and packaging the end- product. The “Seaweed Bath Soap” was an offshoot product of the project entitled “ Seaweed Gel Extract Product Formulation and Development.” The soap product containing a mixture of seaweed gel, papaya and atsuete extract were brought to the Cagayan Valley Herbal Processing Plant.- Philippine Institute for Traditional and Alternative Health Care, Carig, Tuguegarao City for bioassay analysis and testing. After which, it was subjected to sensory evaluation by trained panelists of Don Mariano Marcos Memorial State University- North La Union Campus. Result of the study revealed that the soap product was found to be very much acceptable in its overall quality attributes.

Keywords: Seaweeds bath soap, seaweed gel extract, seaweed product formulation, herbal soap, DMMMSU soap
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Title: Morphometric Analysis of Third order River Basins using High Resolution Satellite Imagery and GIS Technology: Special Reference to Natural Hazard Vulnerability Assessment
Name: Pradeep K. Rawat*, P.C. Tiwari* and Charu C. Pant**
*Department of Geography Kumaun University, Nainital, India
**Department of Geology Kumaun University, Nainital, India
Abstract:

The main objective of the study was to analysis the morphometric parameters of third order sub basins (TOSBs) special reference to natural hazard vulnerability assessment through integrated GIS database modeling on geo-informatics and morphometry-informatics modules. The Dabka River Basin (DRB) constitutes a part of the Kosi Basin in the Lesser Himalaya, India in district Nainital has been selected for the case illustration. Geo-informatics module consists of GIS mapping for location map, drainage map, drainage order map, lineament map, structural map, geological map etc. Morphometric module consists of morphometric analysis for several drainage basin parameters include drainage pattern, stream order, stream number, stream length, mean stream length, drainage pattern, drainage density, stream frequency, stream length ratio, relief ratio, elongation ratio, bifurcation ratio, form factor, circularity ratio and sinuosity index. Consequently the morphometric results integrated with geo-informatics parameters to assess the natural hazard vulnerability in all third order sub basins (TOSBs) and the final integrated results concluded that out of total 23 sub basins maximum 17 sub basins are highly vulnerable for several natural hazards whereas only 4 sub basins and 2 sub basins have respectively moderate and low natural hazards vulnerability.

Keywords: GI-Science, Geo-informatics, Morphometry-informatics, Natural Hazards
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Title: E-INTERNATIONAL SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH JOURNAL
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