E-International Scientific Research Journal Consortium

World Electronic Journals Impact Factor

E-International Scientific Research Journal

Title: Characterization of Leachates from Waste Disposal Facilities and its Effects to Groundwater
Name: Mario B. Mendoza, Leonora E. Ngilangil and Desiree A. Vilar
The concentration of primary pollutants in underlying groundwater and leachate at waste disposal facilities was determined. Twice during the duration of the project, groundwater samples from twelve shallow/deep or open wells and leachates from six solid waste disposal facilities in Region I, Philippines were taken and analyzed at the CRL Environment Corporation located at Clark, Pampanga, Philippines. Groundwater samples were analyzed in terms of physical, chemical and biological parameters such as pH, temperature, turbidity, conductivity, Total dissolved solids (TDS), nitrate, Total nitrogen, Total phosphorous, Total coliforms, and fecal coliforms. Likewise, parameters for leachate characterization were analyzed in terms of pH, chemical oxygen demand, total nitrogen, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead and mercury. Results obtained on the different parameters were compared with acceptable and standard values for groundwater and leachate set by the PNSDW and DAO 35, respectively.
Keywords: Groundwater, Leachates, Pollution, Waste disposal
Title: Sea Urchin Grow-Out Culture In La Union, Philippines (A Coastal Resource Management Strategy - Balaoan Experience)
Name: Valentino V. Prado
The world’s catch on the sea urchin, T. gratilla declined from119,647mt fresh weight in 1995 to 89,918 mt in 1998. Similarly, the country’s production soared down from 1,100mt in 1992 to only 392mt in 1998. The trend in local catch was attributed aside from other factors to overexploitation (Juinio-Meñez et al 1997). Such have caused disenchantment, loss of a million pesos fishery and source of livelihood of many coastal families. Noteworthy enough, the sea urchin had provided major source of income in Bolinao, Pangasinan generating million of pesos per annum from 1988 to 1992 (Talaue-Mcmanus and Kesner, 1995). Hence, the collapse of the fishery prompted scientists and institutions to develop management plans and initiatives to enhance the natural sea urchin population with the involvement of the community (Juinio-Meñez et al., 2000;2001).
Along the northern Ilocos coasts, sea urchin wildstock population was not as massive as in Bolinao, Pangasinan. Nevertheless, the resource is one among the component catch for consumption by coastal families. Research efforts then were directed towards the development of an alternative source of livelihood through mariculture of the species in question (Malano, 1981; Sanidad, et al 2003; Prado and Tepait, 2006). Accordingly, sea urchin culture in cages can be regarded as mini-reproductive reserves for this species. The presence of matured or parent stocks in cages may enhance recruit survival hence population in the open water (Juinio-Meñez et al., 2001). Relatively, it is also feasible to culture both sea urchin and seaweed to maximize fishermen’s productivity (Prado, et al., 2008).
Keywords: sea urchin, coastal resource management, T. gratilla, livelihood
Title: Women Empowerment For Economic Productivity In Coastal Communities
Name: Jaime I. Manuel, Jr., Rogelio M. Estacio, Ida C. Junio, Valentino V. Prado, Arnulfo B. Junio, Enone V. Tepait, Gerry N. Galvez, Eladio Camalig, Jr. and Richard N. Rivera
Fifty five women from the three coastal municipalities of La Union, Philippines acquired financial freedom through sustainable livelihood on processing and marketing seaweed-based products. The women are officers and members of the Women’s Aquatic Processing Association (WAPA) with the business address at DMMMSU, Paraoir, Balaoan, La Union, Philippines. The association was institutionalized by the Department of Labor and Employment with Registration No. R0100-2012-12-RWA-468.

Women empowerment in coastal communities in Balaoan, Bacnotan and Luna in the province of La Union was initiated by the Don Mariano Marcos Memorial State University-North La Union Campus with the Magna Carta of Women (R.A. 9710) as its legal bases that promotes gender equality which plays a major role in the fight against poverty which can be won when women are able to generate income for themselves and their families.

Series of skills training on seaweed processing were conducted to develop their capabilities. Project management and values orientation training cum-workshops were also conducted to enhance their competencies in running the project. Housewives were equipped with the necessary skills and attitudes making them ready to manage a livelihood project that raised their economic condition.

Effective networking/linkaging with government and private agencies like the Bureau of Fisheries and HOLCIM-Philippines, Inc. provided the association financial assistance to produce and market seaweed-based products in the local markets such as seaweed bathsoap, seaweed candies, seaweed pickles, seaweed flakes, seaweed ice cream and seaweed ice candy. The livelihood project was found to be profitable with a return on expenses of 166% as of June 2014.

Based on the economic survey conducted, results showed a highly significant increase of income by the respondents of 120%. Indicators include annual household income, household asset index, household debt levels and household saving levels.

This provided the WAPA members additional income for their families. With their commitment in the proper management of their livelihood project, they were able to make it sustainable by providing better quality seaweed-based products in the local markets that continuously giving them increased income as spurred economic productivity in the community.

Keywords: DMMMSU , empowerment, livelihood, seaweeds, women
Title: Academic Performance of Student Leaders of DMMMSU-NLUC as Affected by Positions Held at the Different Accredited Student Organizations of DMMMSU
Name: Jaime I. Manuel, Jr.
Academic Performance of Student Leaders of DMMMSU-NLUC as Affected by Positions Held at the Different Accredited Student Organizations of DMMMSU was conducted to determine the effects of being an officer in an accredited student organization to the academic performance of the student as a basis in formulating a policy guidelines that prescribed the number of positions and what position-classifications can be allowed to be held by a student for a particular given time to be recommended to the University administration for consideration and implementation

More specifically it answered the following questions:

1. Are there significant relationships between positions held and the academic performance of the student?

2. Are there significant differences of means of grades of the different categorization of student leaders?; and

3. Are there significant differences of means of grades and degree of responsibilities of the different categorization of student leaders?

The results of the study showed that there are 438 student leaders of NLUC during the school year 2012-2013, 55 of them dropped out during the school year leaving 383 as the respondents of the study.

The grand mean of the degree of responsibilities which is 2.17 indicates that student leaders of NLUC held positions which have very light responsibilities.

As to the general point average of the respondents, the 2.12 grand mean showed that student leaders performed considerably well in their academics. The relationship between positions and academic performance is highly significant , though there is a weak relationship, the study has proven that engaging in extra-curricular activities, in this particular case, as an officer of various student organizations, does not adversely affect the academic standing of the student leader. The mean of grades of student leaders in Group 2, with light responsibilities significantly differ with the mean of grades of Group 1, while for the degree of responsibilities, every group registered a significant difference with the other group. It is recommended that the University shall encourage students to balance their academic responsibilities and their obligations to their organizations that they aspire only positions they can appropriately handle without sacrificing their time for their classes. Further, the University must keep on providing avenues for students to hone their leadership potentials and extend necessary support for the conduct of various legitimate activities that shall redound to their total personality development. Furthermore, the University must continue to extend due consideration to students who missed some academic requirements because of their attendance and participation to the activities of their organization. And, finally, the University may adopt the following policies: 1.1 A student can be allowed to handle one key position and another lower position in another organization, provided the accumulated point assignment of both positions does not exceed 14. 1.2 Regardless of the point weight of the position, no student shall be allowed to hold more than 3 in one school year 1.3 Officers in the SBO, whose positions were assigned more than 14 points, must not have any other position.
Keywords: Academic Performance, Student Leaders, positions held, accredited student organizations
Title: Sea Cucumber Gatherers in Ilocos Sur - Traditional Practices and Its Implication to Fishery Resource Management
Name: Remely I. Sanidad, Victor G. Sanidad
The study assessed the sea cucumber gatherers traditional practices and its implication to fishery resource management in Ilocos Sur. The traditional practices of fishermen in the communities, local knowledge and historical trends have a significant contribution in the conservation of sea cucumber and to counteract the present situation of overfished/depleting sea cucumber resource in the Ilocos.

Five coastal sampling municipalities were identified with thirty eight respondents. Interview was utilized accompanied with the use of beche-de-mer identification guide, focus group discussion, observations and documentation were done particularly on the gathering, processing and trading of sea cucumber. Sea cucumber samples were gathered to identify and determine further the species collected.

Species collected vary upon the availability in the area, with 2-5 persons involved, collected through handpicking and dependent on the weather condition of the area, usually gathered in the morning using bamboo raft, goggles and fish net. Sea cucumber found either in seagrass beds, coralline and sandy-muddy areas, burrowed, exposed or hide in crevices and collected in shallow or deeper areas depending on the species and sizes.Sea cucumber gathered intended for consumption purpose and others processed for commercial purposes and sell their catch on dried basis.

The research study concludes with a recommendation that sea cucumber gathering restrictions in relation to size, mode of collection, culture and ranching practices, establishment or management of fishery reserved should be promulgated to enhance natural stock and suitable conservation efforts should be sincerely adopted and implemented to further protect the sea cucumber resource.

Keywords: Sea cucumber, traditional practices, fishery resource management
Title: Sea Cucumber Products: Appetizer for Feeding Program to Undernourished Children of Saint Gregory Primary School, Narvacan, Ilocos Sur
Name: Katrina S. Sarazawa
Three sea cucumber appetizer products formulated, evaluated and analyzed were utilized as food intervention given to underweight school children aged to 7 to 9 years at St. Gregory Primary School for the school year 2012-2013. Feeding underweight school children with sea cucumber products as appetizer significantly improves their weight gain, sea cucumber products have potential to improve Vitamin A level, and have a brighter prospect of developing foods made from sea cucumber to combat Vitamin A deficiency in the populations at risk. To determine the effect of sea cucumber appetizers on the growth and development of underweight school children’s body mass index, further studies be conducted on other age groups of children not considered in the study
Keywords: Sea cucumber appetizer, feeding intervention, nutritional status, appetizer, underweight school children

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