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E-International Scientific Research Journal

Title: Table of Contents Volume 5 Issue 2
Name: Table of Contents
Title: Ectoparasiticidal Effect of Virgin Coconut (Cocos nucifera) Oil Shampoo in Dogs
Name: Gregory B. Viste, Rosenio C. Silvestre, and Juliana Q. Silvestre

This study was conducted with the following objectives: a) to determine the efficacy of VCO shampoo against ectoparasites in dogs; b) to determine the most effective concentration of VCO shampoo against ectoparasites in dogs; c) to identify the species of ectoparasites affected by VCO shampoo; and d) to analyze the cost of producing VCO shampoo as compared with the commercial ectoparasiticidal dog shampoo.

A total of 60 dogs (30 dogs for ticks, lice and fleas and 30 dogs for mites), regardless of sex, age and breed were used in the study. The experimental dogs were distributed into five treatments and replicated three times with two dogs per replicate using Complete Randomized Design (CRD) for ticks, lice and fleas and Randomized Complete Block Design for mites. The treatments were as follows: T0-negative control(plain shampoo); T0+- positive control (commercial dog shampoo); T1 (60% VCO shampoo); T2 (70% VCO shampoo); T3 (80% VCO shampoo).

Prior to treatment, collection and identification of ectoparasites were done to determine the presence of ticks, fleas and lice. Skin scraping samples were taken to determine the species of mite present, and the mean pre-treatment mite count.

The experimental dogs were observed an hour and 24 hours after the application of VCO shampoo to determine the presence or absence of ticks, fleas and lice. Post-treatment mite count was done every after 2 weeks of application. The data gathered were tabulated using means and percentages. The Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (DMRT) and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) were used to determine the level of significance and the differences among the five treatments respectively.

The result of the study revealed that VCO shampoo is highly effective against ticks, fleas, lice and mites in dogs. Eighty percent (80%) VCO shampoo is the most effective concentration in eliminating and reducing the mite count as early as 6th week of treatment and other ectoparasites. However, Analysis of Variance revealed no significant difference among the various VCO shampoo concentrations in eliminating the ectoparasites. Virgin Coconut Oil shampoo is more economical compared to commercial dog shampoo against ectoparasites (ticks, fleas, lice and mites) in dogs.

Title: Efficacy of Virgin Coconut (Cocos nucifera ) Oilsoap Against Mange in Dogs
Name: Gregory B. Viste, Rosenio C. Silvestre, Nida B. Tabije and Juliana Q. Silvestre

This study was conducted to a) determine the efficacy of VCO soap against mange in dogs; b) determine the most effective concentration of VCO soap against mange in dogs; and c) identify the species of mites affected by VCO soap.

Fifteen mongrel dogs positive of mange regardless of sex and age were used in the study. They were distributed into five treatments and replicated thrice with one dog per replicate using the Complete Randomized Design (CRD). Before the application, skin scrapings were taken from three different sites on the animals to identify the species of mites present and determine their number. The experimental dogs were bathed twice a week for eight weeks using the different preparations such as the following:

T0- - 60% Oil/100 g soap T0+ - 1 ml Amitraz T1 – 50% VCO/100 g soap T2 – 60% VCO/100 g soap T3 – 70% VCO/100 g soap

The gathered data were tabulated using means and percentages. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA ) was used to determine differences among the treatments. Every after two weeks of application of VCO soap, post-treatment mite count was done on each study dogs using the same site as the pre-treatment mite count. Results showed that VCO soap ishighly effective against mange in dogs.Seventy percent (70%) is the most effective concentration of VCO soap against mange in dogs.There are two types of mites affecting dogs, Sarcoptes and Demodex species.

Title: Efficacy Test and Acceptability of Kakawate (Gliricidia sepium) Leaf Extract Soap Against Mange in Dogs
Name: Gregory B. Viste, Priscilo P. Fontanilla Jr., Vicky A. Agpasa, Nida B. Tabije and Fe M. Camalig

Mange is a contagious skin disease of animals caused by several species of mites. Once infection is established, animals may suffer from intense pruritus and hypersensitivity which can lead to debilitation and possibly death. Gliricidia sepium know as madre de cacao or kakawate in the Philippines is effective in treating external parasites including mange infection in dogs and other animals. This study was conducted to make herbal soap and render the medicinal plant more convenient to use, storable and readily available to pet owners throughout the year, even in the urban areas where kakawate tree is seldom seen.

The study aims to determine the: (a) species of mites which can be killed by kakawate leaf extract soap (KLES); (b) efficacy of the soap; (c) most effective concentration of the soap; (d) efficacy awareness of respondents about the soap, and; (e) acceptability of the soap to the respondents against mange in dogs.

Thirty mangy dogs were used in the study and were distributed to five treatments replicated three times with two dogs per treatment. The different treatment uses 10% (T1), 15% (T2), 20% (T3), a negative control (TO-), and a positive control (TO+). Data gathered were tabulated using means, frequencies and percentages and analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey HSD methods

Mites infesting the animals were Sarcoptes and Demodex spp. Kakawate leaf extract soap at 20%, 15% and 10% concentrations were effective against mites in dogs. Twenty percent (20%) kakawate leaf extract soap reduced the number of mites up to 98.99% which was highly effective and comparable to the effect of the commercial anti-mange preparation.

For the efficacy awareness, 82.6 % of the non-soap user respondents claimed that they are not aware that the kakawate leaf extract soap can treat mange of dogs. These non-soap users were given with the KLES and after using it on their dogs, 92.85% of them claimed that it is effective in treating mange. For the general acceptability, KLES users claimed that it is 100% effective in treating mange.

KLES is effective in reducing the number of mites. Twenty (20) % KLES is highly effective (98.99 %) and comparable to commercial anti-mange drug (99.79%). Respondents/users claimed that KLES is 86.72% acceptable.


Kakawate, Mange in Dogs

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Title: “Competencies of Technology and Livelihood Education (TLE) Instructors: Input to a Training Module in Industrial Arts”
Name: Dante B. Guiner

This dissertation entitled, “Training Module in Industrial Arts for Instructors” utilized the descriptive research. The sets of questionnaires were the main instruments used to gather data. From the results of the study, a training module in industrial arts for instructors was developed for industrial arts faculty of State Colleges and Universities in Region I to further improve their teaching competency.

Specifically, this research sought to determine; (1) the profile of the Industrial Arts instructors in State Colleges and Universities in Region I in terms of: (a) age, (b) gender, (c) academic rank, (d) educational attainment, (e) length of service, and (f) trainings attended. (2) the level of competencies along five areas in industrial arts along: (a) knowledge, (b)skills, and (c) attitudes (3) the level of validity of the training module in terms of (a) content (b) face (c) functionality (d) acceptability.

The respondents of this study were composed of 61 instructors teaching five areas in industrial arts in state colleges and universities in Region I. Frequency counts, percentages and mean values were used for the statistical computation of the gathered data.

Data were gathered, analyzed and interpreted and arrived of the following findings:

The instructors in the five areas in industrial arts were dominated by males between ages 41 and 50 years old. Majority occupy instructor I position, who are holding Bachelor degree with average 1 to 10 years teaching experience. Likewise most of them have attended trainings and seminars/workshop in different levels related to their respective area and with varied skills.

Generally, the level of competency of the instructor respondents in five areas in industrial arts revealed a “high competent” remark

Generally, the five areas in Industrial Arts except Electricity with a mean average of (3.07) and Electronics (3.11) had mean ratings above 3.40. Therefore, only two indicators were considered constraints and all the rest were capabilities. The capabilities reflect the high implementation of competency level of Industrial Arts instructors, while the constraints weaken the competency level of TLE instructors.

The developed training module in industrial arts for instructors as well as the questionnaires were’’ very much valid’’ as to content and face validity.

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Title: Status of the Bachelor of Science in Electro-Mechanical Technology Program
Name: Melchor D. Salom and Zonia Tan-Florendo

The field of electro-mechanical technology (EMT) is currently experiencing rapid growth. This can be attributed to the continuous advancement of science and technology in an effort to keep up with people's changing technological needs and desires. Knowledge and capability in this field provide a competitive advantage in the manufacture of products and the provision of EMT services.

Anchored on the theory of evaluation of academic programs, the study used descriptive research design to determine the status of the Bachelor of Science in Electro-mechanical Technology (BSEMT) program of the Don Mariano Marcos Memorial State University (DMMMU) in various dimensions.

The findings were: the extent of realization of the BSEMT Program objectives was “much realized”; the level of relevance of the curriculum was “very relevant”; (3) the level of effectiveness of instruction was “very effective”; the level of performance of the BSEMT faculty was “very satisfactory”; the level of satisfaction on physical facilities, on laboratories was “moderately satisfactory”; the level of satisfaction on library was “much satisfactory.”


electro-mechanical technology, objectives, curriculum, instruction, faculty, physical facilities, laboratories, library

Title: Management Approaches To Computer Security Threats Of The Don Mariano Marcos Memorial State University, La Union
Name: Rufo A. Baro, Shalimar L. Navalta and Mario B. Mendoza

This study was conducted to determine the extent of management of computer security threats of the Don Mariano Marcos Memorial State University, La Union. Specifically, it aimed to determine the extent of prevention, detection, response, and level of administrative support to computer security threats in terms of (a) internet security; (b) data security; (c) network security; (d) mobile computing security; and (e) disaster recovery security.

Descriptive method of research design was utilized with the questionnaire as the main tool in gathering data. Frequency counts, percentages and weighted means were used in the data analysis. Supplementary activities include document analysis and ocular inspection. The respondents include administrators, IT personnel, faculty members, non-teaching staffs, and students of the different operating units of the university.

As to the extent of prevention of the threats to computer security, significant differences were found among the groups of raters. The administrators and IT personnel respondents did not vary significantly. IT personnel and computer users had likewise insignificant difference in their responses. However, the administrator group had rating significantly higher than the computer users.

Findings on the extent of detection as to overall result showed no significant difference among the types of computer security.

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Title: Don Mariano Marcos Memorial State University Integrated Management Information System (DIMIS)
Name: Shalimar L. Navalta and Mario B. Mendoza

The study determined the extent of implementation of the DMMMSU-ISSP and the status of the DMMMSU-MIS.

The descriptive method of research design was used while frequency counts, percentages and weighted means were used for data analysis. The respondents included administrators, MIS users and IT faculty members of the university.

Findings showed that the attainment of objectives of the DMMMSU-ISSP was “moderately attained” and the level of adequacy of ICT resources was “moderately adequate” which reflected limited accomplishment on the DMMMSU-ISSP and slight compliance to National Computer Center requirements.

The status of MIS as to level of adequacy of information systems was “slightly adequate”, “low” on extent of use, “slightly functional” on functionality and “moderate” on the level of administrative support which showed that the university somehow supported the development and utilization of the MIS of the university.

Title: Performance of Chicken Layers as Affected By Calcium Supplement
Name: Cynthia M. Rodriguez

The high rate of egg production of today’s laying hen put tremendous demands on the hen’s calcium metabolism and therefore requires high quality calcium source. At post peak production, calcium is not only used for proper eggshell formation but is also needed to maintain skeletal integrity. This study was conducted to determine the performance of 44 weeks old chicken layers supplemented with coarse and fine calcium supplements in the form of toppings. Eight hundred heads of chicken layers were randomly distributed into four treatments replicated five times following the RCBD.

Egg production and weight of eggshell were not significantly affected by calcium supplements. Eggshell thickness, percent crack eggs and profit above feed and supplement cost were significantly affected by calcium supplements using fine limestone, coarse limestone and oyster shell.

Title: DMMMSU’s Fisheries R & D: An Intervention to Sustainable Livelihood for Coastal Families in La Union
Name: Jaime I. Manuel Jr, Rogelio M. Estacio, Valentino V. Prado, Ida C. Junio, Enone V. Tepait, Arnulfo B. Junio, Gerry N. Galvez, Lourdes P. Bisco and Richard N. Rivera

DMMMSU’s resource-based approach to fisheries research led to the development of new technologies for adoption by its service communities. Mariculture of seaweed and sea urchin provided the base for production of primary source materials for the product development initiatives such as seaweed candies, seaweed pickles, seaweed flakes, seaweed bathsoap and roe processing. Through effective technology transfer, research outputs were transformed into productive livelihood projects that brought economic productivity in the community.

Collaboration, capability building and community awareness on coastal resource issues and information and education campaign coupled with strong participation and involvement of stakeholders, undoubtedly triggered community responsibility towards economic and resource protection.

Partners in the implementation of the developed technologies on seaweed and sea urchin to productive livelihood projects included the Department of Science and Technology-Technology Application and Promotion Institute (DOST-TAPI), Taguig, Metro Manila; Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources (BFAR), Region I; HOLCIM-Philippines, Inc.; Department of Labor and Employment (DOLE), Region I; Local Government Units of Balaoan, Bacnotan and Luna; Paraoir Fisherfolks Association (PFA) and Women’s Aquatic Processing Association (WAPA).

These paved the way of improving the socio-economic condition of the 110 family-beneficiaries as well as biological impacts in the pilot coastal community. The sustained mariculture of sea urchin by the coastal fishers also increased and maintained the wildstock population. Enhanced biodiversity was observed to include the re-occurrence of sea cucumber population in the production areas and increased juvenile sea urchin population.

Hence, sustainability of the projects is dependent and attributed to the realization of the key players’ role in research and development.


mariculture, collaboration, involvement, community, product development,productivity, DMMMSU, seaweed, sea urchin

  • DOWNLOAD THE FULL ARTICLE HERE - DMMMSU’s_Fisheries_R_&_D_An_Intervention__to_Sustainable_Livelihood__for_Coastal_Families_in_La_Union_1369732490.pdf
Title: Research Capability of the Faculty Members of DMMMSU MID La Union Campus
Name: Melchor D. Salom

This study used descriptive design with a questionnaire to determine that the faculty of the Don Mariano Marcos Memorial State University (DMMMSU) Mid La Union Campus were capable in the areas of the research process, encountered a moderate degree of seriousness of the problems along identified areas of the research process, and obtained a competent level in using identified statistical measures. Academic rank, highest educational attainment, and teaching load caused a significant difference in their level of research capability.

The researchers concluded that the faculty have gained adequate knowledge and have developed skills in putting the rules and principles of the research process into practice; that there is much room to improve the faculty members’ writing skills to present, to analyze, and to interpret effectively their research findings; that the level of competence of the faculty in using statistical measures can be strengthened; that the variables of academic rank, highest educational attainment, and teaching load affected the level of research capability of the faculty.


research capability, faculty, research process

Title: Factors Influencing the Academic Performance in Physics of DMMMSU- MLUC Laboratory High School Fourth Year Students S.Y. 2011-2012
Name: Noemi Mangaoang-Boado

This study focused on the investigation on the predictors of the academic performance in Physics of Don Mariano Marcos Memorial State University Mid La Union Campus (DMMMSU-MLUC) Laboratory High School Fourth Year Students for the School Year 2011-2012. Factors such as family, student, school and teacher factors were correlated to academic performance. Significant relationships to academic performance in Physics occurred for the four factors namely, Grade Point Average (GPA) in Math, GPA in English, attitude towards Physics, and study habits. The results imply that students’ performance in Physics will be higher if they perform better in English and Mathematics; if they show positive attitude towards Physics; and if they possess good study habits. Among the factors, GPA in Math had the best influence to academic performance in Physics.


performance, factor, predictor

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Title: 2 in 1 plus MARICULTURE FARMING SYSTEM (A Livelihood Management Strategy for Coastal Families)
Name: Valentino V. Prado, Ida C. Junio, Enone V. Tepait, Gerry N. Galvez,Lourdes P. Bisco and Richard N. Rivera

The potential of seafarming both seaweed and sea urchin in a 200 sq.m. coastal space was explored. Coined as 2 in 1plus mariculture farming system, it encourages family households to work together in a system of production and processing aimed at optimizing coastal family productivity.

The mariculture system was developed through the integration of several experimental/ demofarm results and local practices on the culture and processing of seaweed and sea urchin under La Union condition. Return on expenses of respective technologies was presented.

Results show that the integrated mariculture farming system maximizes the use of limited culture area and boosts productivity of a family. It can serve as an alternative source of livelihood producing food commodities for local market with export potential. Direct benefit is a return on expenses of 87 and 67% for fresh seaweed and sea urchin respectively, and about 14 to 65% of any product development a family would undertake, as a value-added initiative. A family that works together within the system enhances social progression while promoting family entrepreneurship, or to community in general.

Sustained collaboration and involvement of key players in coastal fisheries management is sought for successful family or community-based adoption of the 2 in 1plus mariculture farming system.


: mariculture, seaweed, sea urchin, farming system, processing On the other hand, world production of sea urchin, which is a high value fisheries commodity declined from 119,647mt fresh weight in 1995, to only 89,918mt in 1998. Similarly, the country’s production dropped from 1,100mt fresh weight in 1992, to only 380mt in 1998. Due to overexploitation, the collapse of the fishery resulted to the loss of a multi-million pesos fisheries which is the livelihood source of many coastal families (Juinio-Meñez, 2000).

Concerned with status of the resource, the UP-MSI under the support of the DA-BAR initiated various initiatives to recover the sea urchin fisheries from its collapse (Juinio-Meñez, 2000; Juinio-Menez et al, 2005). Fisheries institutions and line agencies e.g. SUC’s, DA-BFAR in northern Ilocos region also conducted various trials to optimize production, and such initiatives resulted to the development of alternative source of livelihood at present (Malano,1981, Sanidad et.al 2003, BFAR undated). Prado and Tepait (2006) showed that following their stock size sea urchin can be harvested in about two months of culture. Juvenile wildstocks were gathered and cultured in cages, since natural recruitment was already observed in Balaoan waters (Prado and Galvez, 2008) and in other areas of the Ilocos (Bangi, HG et al 2007).

Based on the foregoing, maximizing productivity of a coastal family remained a challenge. The present farming practices on the seaweed and sea urchin culture are taken separately thus occupy wider coastal space. With such, and the increasing number of fishermen in seafarming these commodities pause an imminent source of conflict on culture space in the future. By maximizing the use of a limited space in culturing the two commodities in an specific area is a management strategy to minimize the possible impact of the above scenario. Likewise, the involvement of household members in a technology will not only result to economic productivity but also strengthens social relationships among household members hence, this paper.

Title: Size Structure and Density of Sea Urchin, T. gratilla Along Balaoan Waters, La Union, Philippines
Name: Valentino V. Prado, Gerry N. Galvez and Richard Rivera

Some aspects on the population structure of Sea Urchin, T. gratilla along the coasts of Balaoan, La Union, Philippines was determined. A two 2m x 50m belt transect are laid every sampling period from June 2009 to April 2010, and in situ determination of the total number of organism and its corresponding size was made.

Recruits dominated the wildstock population year-round. Immature sea urchin, or those with below 6cm size comprised about 91% of the population. A bimodal distribution was noted. Meanwhile, the average density structure of the population is very low despite previous efforts to improve the current status of the organism at sustainable basis.

A community policy of not catching sea urchin below the 7cm size limit shall be adopted by local fishermen to ensure significant quantity of parent stock in the wild population.


sea urchin. size composition/structure, population density Coastal farming of T. gratilla boosted marginal fishermen’s productivity and economic status in Bolinao, Pangasinan; Balaoan and City of San Fernando, La Union and other coastal areas of Ilocos Region. In Balaoan alone, sea urchin were transferred from Nalvo, Santa Maria, Ilocos Sur and stocked in steel cages in 2002. This was an initial collaborative undertaking of the Local Government Unit of Balaoan, La Union and Don Mariano Marcos Mem. State University in establishing a “reproductive reserve” in the area, and such effort was the preliminary step to rehabilitate and enhance wildstock population of sea urchin in Balaoan waters (Prado and Galvez, 2008).

After which, the Department of Agriculture – Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources and other line agencies, including the Holcim Phils. implemented and supported livelihood strategies for sea urchin farming by the local fishermen. To date, urchin juveniles abound supporting massive cage culture production of the organism. It shall be noted here that this resource is abundant before its apparent decline in the 90’s in the area. The culture of sea urchin in steel cages gave hope for coastal dwellers to increase coastal productivity and income of fishers. Prado and Tepait (2006) showed that local market size sea urchin can be obtained in two-three months culture following their stock size and proper culture management. Good growth performance of sea urchin in Ilocos Sur have also been found earlier (Sanidad, et al, 2003), indicating sea urchin as sustainable livelihood opportunity in the region. Nevertheless, there is no sufficient or detailed study on the juvenile recruitment of spawning population of sea urchin in La Union since the collapse of this resource. With the enhancement strategies being undertaken, there are prospects of expanding livelihood opportunities for fisherfolks. A need to understand the dynamics of the sea urchin wildstock population is a necessity for a resource management options to be developed in the area, hence this study.

Title: Prototype Design & Development of Re-Adjustable Multiple-Dibbler Ergonomic Tool (RaMdE Tool) for Tray-Based Seedling Production of High Value Crops
Name: Engr. Raffy M. Espiritu

A prototype unit of a re-adjustable multiple-dibbler ergonomic tool (RaMdE Tool) was designed and developed for tray-based seedling production of high value crops. It was locally-fabricated using commonly-used shop tools, equipments and materials available over-the-counter. Parts of the prototype tool are grip handle, shank, tool bar, dibbler teeth, wing nut and hexagonal double nut.

Theoretical and effective dibbling time per tray of the prototype tool is significantly different (28.2 sec.) from the farmers practice (34.1sec.). Dibbling Capacity significantly increased to 109 trays/hour from 15.7 trays/hr (farmers’ practice) with device efficiency of 82.7%. Reduction in dibbling time did not significantly affect dibbling quality. Using RaMdE Tool is a very light physical activity with a mean score of 9.25 by Borg’s Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE) Scale. The prototype is “fair” designed tool (Mean Score: 87.2) using the Checklists for the Ergonomic Evaluation of Hand Tools.

Investment of P 560.00 for a RaMdE Tool unit yields net benefit of P 1,008.80/ growing season. Man-hour required to complete dibbling operation for 5 hectare tobacco seedling growing module is reduced to 6.65 man- hours from 46.17 man- hours (farmers’ practice). Contract laborer using RaMdE Tool earns P 218.00/hr at 109 dibbled trays per hour and incremental additional income of P 37,320.00 for 25 working days per growing season. Computed payback period under this scheme is 19 man-hours (2.4 Man-Days).


RaMdE Tool, ergonomics, dibbling capacity, dibbling time, dibbling quality, Borg’s Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE) Scale, Checklists for the Ergonomic Evaluation of Hand Tools


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