E-International Scientific Research Journal Consortium

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E-International Scientific Research Journal

Name: Victoria N. Malaya

Sea cucumber fishery in the province of La Union is considered a small scale activity. Harvesting practices mainly include handpicking, wading and skin diving. Processing of sea cucumber is established using traditional procedure. Holothuria scabra is mostly traded in small scale while other species are seasonally traded on a by order basis. Majority of fishers are aware that overfishing, overharvesting due to high market demand, use of sodium cyanide are the major causes of declining catch. Fishers are aware that selective harvesting, breeding and establishment of marine sanctuary and marine protected area are management strategies to improve sea cucumber catch. With the findings on the status of local exploitation of sea cucumber resources, appropriate regulations are needed towards a sustainable sea cucumber fishery.

Title: Size at first maturity of selected sea cucumber species in La union
Name: Jinnie R. Mamhot

To properly manage a resource, some biological information should be considered. Aside from where and when a species occurred, aspects of reproduction prove to be valuable information needed to establish management option for a species. Being an important marine commodity and because of declining landings of sea cucumber, a study was conducted to generate information on reproduction of species. This paper attempted to provide data on maturity of sea cucumber.

Keywords: Sea cucumber, La Union, size at first maturity, Holothuria atra
Title: Sea cucumber resources of La Union
Name: Jinnie R. Mamhot, Victoria N. Malaya, Alfredo L. Quesada, Jr.

Species identification is an important tool to properly manage resources. It distinguish a species from another and importantly segrates species which are important from those which are no. And when properly applied, leads to correct management of the resource.

This paper describes some consideration points in the identification of sea cucumber, a group of wormlike organism that forms a lucrative industry known as Trepang Industry in the country. Results of the survey presents list of sea cucumber species found in La Union and describe areas where they are collected.

Keywords: Species identification, sea cucumber of La Union, Holothuridae, Stichopodae, Synaptidae, Caudinadae
Title: Population size structure of sea cucumber in La Union
Name: Jinnie R. Mamhot

Decrease in the population of organisms maybe due to increase fishing pressure, destruction of habitat due to oceanographic condition or to pollution. To strengthen these assumptions, however, data on the size structure of the species should be considered. This paper describes the size structure of sea cucumber species in Northwestern Luzon particularly those of La Union.

Keywords: Population structure, sea cucumber of La Union.
Title: Species Abundance and Distribution of Sea Cucumber in La Union (Philippines)
Name: Jinnie R. Mamhot

As part of the effort in enriching sea cucumber information, an integrated research on sea cucumber stock assessment in key marine geographic areas of the Philippines was conducted for a year from February 2012 to January 2013. Among the areas identified was La Union where species composition, abundance and temporal distribution of sea cucumbers were described. The three sampling sites differ in species composition with Sto. Tomas having the least diverse in sea cucumber resources while both Purok 6 of Balaoan and Wallace of San Fernando having the most diverse species. H. scabra and H. ocellata are common in Sto. Tomas, H. deficilis, H. atra and H. leucospilota are frequent in Wallace, San Fernando while A. echinites and H. fuscocineria are dominant in Balaoan.

Keywords: Species abundance, sea cucumber, distribution of sea cucumber
Name: Melchor D. Salom and Zonia T. Florendo

Vision, mission, goals, and objectives (VMGOs) are the touchstone for everything that an educational institution, like the Don Mariano Marcos Memorial State University (DMMMSU) undertakes. VMGO statements are concrete guides for the future of the institution.

This study used the descriptive design of research with a questionnaire to determine the extent of awareness, the level of acceptability, and the degree of relevance of DMMMSU’s Bachelor of Science in Electromechanical Technology (BSEMT) program’s VMGOs.

The study found out that the respondents were very much aware of the BSEMT program’s VMGOs, which were also perceived as very much acceptable and very much relevant.

The researchers concluded that the constituents, stakeholders, and linkages were keen in knowing the core principles contained in the BSEMT program’s VMGOs; that the importance of the VMGOs responded too well to the needs and interests of the concerned constituents and stakeholders.

Keywords: vision, mission, goals, objectives, awareness, acceptability, relevance
Title: Table of Contents volume 5 issue 1 , 2013
Title: Intensifying the OJT Program of the College of Business Administration, Lyceum of the Philippines University - Batangas
Name: Dr. Alex P. Ylagan
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Name: DR. Victorio C. Palabay

This study sought to determine the feasibility of designing and developing a prototype sheet metal engraving and forming machine (SMEFM) through the application of the project development research design for machine inventions and evaluate the developed machine’s performance, functionality and acceptability through the descriptive-evaluative research design. The construction of the SMEF underwent three stages of development: the initial design, second design and the final design, with each design being tested, assed and refined. The fabricated machine using the final design was then evaluated for performance, functionality and acceptability. As evaluated by the respondents composed of Industrial Technology Faculty, Students and metal craft shop owners, the SMEFM is highly satisfactory in terms of performance with regards to precision of the design, ease of operation, variation of product, and speed and accuracy; highly functional as to simplicity of mechanism, variation of performed operation, types of materials, and material gauges; and highly acceptable in terms of production cost, design, and operation.

Title: Viability of Micro-Financing of the College of Business Administration Towards Sustainable Development of It’s Community Extension Service Program
Name: Mr. Rey Fernan G. Refozar, Mr. Rogelio G. Ceradoy

Responding to the commitment of Universities to the Commission on Higher Education in its tri-fold functions, that community extension services were conceptualized to a more viable programs. In Lyceum of the Philippines University in Batangas a micro financing program was carry out as an extension service provided by its business college - College of Business Administration (CBAM). As a program focusing on financial assistance with non-bearing interest to help the poor residents of the universities adopted community in Brgy. Wawa Batangas City, it hopes to build entrepreneurial skills of the residents. Further. it will is an avenue to confirm sustainable project through the help of participative and empowered community residents. Interview and observations were done in order to determine the viability of the micro financing programs named “Pamumuhay Pangkabuhayan”.

Research results revealed the entrepreneurial skills of the community residents serves as a tool for the micro finance program to be successful. Problems encountered were poor cash management, records management keeping and credits to regular customers. Researchers recommended expanding capital for the viability of micro financing projects of College of Business Administration Lyceum of the Philippines University - Batangas. Further, it may also be validated using other adopted community for a more comprehensive evaluation and enhancement.

Keywords: Microfinancing, sustainable development, community extension service
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Title: The Accounting Teachers of Batangas: Their Profiles, Competencies and Problems
Name: Dr. Galicano V. Del Mundo, Mr. Rey Fernan G. Refozar

The study focused on the assessment of the competency level among accounting teachers who are also a practicing public accountant in Batangas. Participants included 20 accounting teachers and 209 students coming from different high performing Universities with Accountancy program in Batangas City and Lipa City. The study made use of descriptive - correlational analysis.

The study revealed that accounting teachers are qualified to handle subjects in the tertiary level. At their prime age, they are efficient in the use of instructional skills and management skills. They also possessed the human and technical skills necessary to be competent teachers and ensure competitive products (students). This result intensified Accounting teacher’s role in the academe not only as CPA practitioners on their field but also in educational institution. However, their problem identified in this study focused on student’s behavior and attitude on their studies. It is recommended in this study that since the good performance rating of accountancy students in board examination results in Batangas is a by-product of their teachers and the university management; still there must be a strict policy in recruiting teachers to handle accountancy subjects. In order to address issue on non-exposure of teachers to education, that school management may encourage accountancy teachers to masters level and or enrolled in education units. A more intense study maybe done in other areas not covered by this research.

Keywords: accounting teachers, profiles, competency
Name: Elizabeth B. Tumbaga, Priscilla I. Gesta, & Florentina A. Corpuz

Using descriptive-evaluative research design, this study aimed to spin the Sanseveria cylindrica fiber, to determine the physical properties of blended Sanseveria cylindrica yarn in terms of breaking force, actual blend ratio, yarn number and twist direction, and to evaluate the yarn as to quality for textile materials.

The findings were as follows: The spinnability of the fiber sample blended with polyester yielded yarn count of 21.54 Ne; the physical property test of the polyester/Sanseviera yarns in the twist direction of the yarn was Z twist with 668 twist count per meter (tpm); the yarn properties of the polyester/Sanseviera yarn possessed acceptable properties comparable to polyester/pineapple and polyester/water hyacinth which was successfully used for clothing and apparels.

The researchers recommend that other natural fibers be blended with Sanseviera cylindrica; that different degumming treatments be used to give the most satisfactory performance during spinning; that weaving of yarns be undertaken to assess the economic viability of Sanseviera cylindrica for textile material.

Title: Status of Lyceum of the Philippines University Customs Education: Basis for Strategic Marketing Plan
Name: Arnold N. Ditan and Jenny Rose L. Aguba

Lyceum of the Philippines University is proud that it has produced Customs graduates who have topped and passed in the Customs Brokers Licensure Examination (CBLE) which has not only demonstrated the match between Lyceum’s academic standards with those of Professional Regulation Commission and professional organizations but also brought prestige to LPU as the Customs alumni become assets to their respective professions and to the larger community.

It is in this context that this study is being pursued with the end of identifying the strength and weaknesses of the program particularly on the areas being investigated on. It also seeks to identify the level of satisfaction of the students of the college on the quality of instruction and student services that would serve as basis for the formulation of strategic marketing plan.

Research design was descriptive using documentary analysis and survey questionnaire as data gathering instruments. The respondents of the study are all BSCA students and faculty members handling professional and general subjects of Customs Administration. Statistical tools used were percentage and weighted mean.

The findings revealed that the Lyceum of the Philippines University Customs Education manifests good status as to faculty and instruction, physical plant and facilities, and student services. Affiliation, linkages and extension are also good however, enrolment, is on a decreasing trend. While faculty development is evident, there is need to involve more faculty members in the program and likewise improve on performance of faculty in research. There are good opportunities for customs education primarily in possibilities of international practicum, presence of CALABARZON, and affiliations and linkages which would be useful to customs education students. Most evident threats are high tuition fees compared to other schools’ fees, employability after graduation, and demand for other courses. That customs education is still in the budding stage was also a threat. The students were mostly satisfied in the faculty and instruction and its site and campus; however, in lowest assessments were services of the library, registrar’s office and health services. The proposed marketing strategies when tried and implemented may serve as enhancement to the service and survival of the customs education program of the LPU-Batangas.

On the basis of the conclusions, it is recommended that the College of Business Administration specifically the Customs Administration Department should maintain the quality of instruction being provided with the students. International benchmarking on good practices in customs education may be considered for improvement in academic and employability potentialities for students. Expanding and review of implementation of services of the health unit, the library and the registrar’s office is promoted so that students may be better served.

Keywords: customs education, strategic plan, marketing strategies, international benchmarking
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Name: Elizabeth H. Madrid

Adaptability of silkworm (Bombyx mori L) to environmental and rearing conditions varies with the area of production. Rearing technologies likewise vary to suit the requirements under different ecological conditions. More farmers are willing to conduct silkworm rearing and to sustain their interest, production stability should be ensured by the use of hybrids adaptable to local climatic and environmental conditions.

The study aimed to compare the performance of silkworm hybrids DMMMSU 346 and DMMMSU 406 during wet and dry season under SRDI condition at different seri-sites of Bacnotan, La Union and to determine which of the hybrids are adaptable to different seasons of the year.

Four boxes of silkworm were reared until the third instar in SRDI. Late age rearing was done in each site for 15 days duration until mounting/spinning. Cocoons were harvested after five days.

Comparable results were obtained in terms of cocoon yield, cocoon shell percentage and denier across years and season in both hybrids, however, the cocoon yield was higher during cool dry season in year 2009. Performance of DMMMSU 346 and DMMMSU 406 were insignificant during wet season in the different seri-sites of Bacnotan La Union. This indicates that these hybrids are adaptable in La Union.

Keywords: seasonal performance, ecological conditions, silkworm hybrids
Title: Pre- employment Intervention: Benchmarking for Job Requirements, Manager’s Employment Criterion and problems of industries
Name: Mr. Rey Fernan G. Refozar, Dr. Galicano del Mundo

One of the problems of students in getting employed after graduation is meeting the job requirements that an organization requires of applicants for a job. However, job requirements vary from company to company for it has its own set of criteria in human resource procurement and development. It is not easy therefore to look for jobs especially .

It is therefore the concern of every higher education institutions to provide its students with pre-employment preparations to getting jobs. Such preparations must be research-based to be sure that the training given to students would prepare them for employment not only in the provincial or local labor market, but more importantly, in national and later on in international labor markets.

It has been said that the Philippines formal education has been amiss in producing productive graduates. (Espino, 1999). This goes to say that there is really a need for students to be trained to become globally competitive, fully equipped with the proper work values in order to make a big difference in the world of work. Catanello and Kirkparactick (2002), on their part suggested four criteria for evaluating training such as the reaction level, the learning level or how well they learned and retained what they learned, the behavioural level, and the results level or the final results obtained from the training.

Decenzo and Robbins (2007) did not deviate from the ideas previously-expressed. They believe that the goal of evaluation phase is to examine whether the program has been effective in meeting the stated goals and objectives. This phase requires identification of criteria which includes their reaction to the training, their assessment of what they learned or problems met during the training program, measures of their behaviour, and indicators of results. The choice of the criteria and design are made before training is conducted so that the training will be properly evaluated. Such constitute the ramifications of training and development.

Further, they underscored the relationship between training and development on one hand, and education on the other side when they said that employee development is more future-oriented and more concerned with education. This is so because the goal of education is to instill sound reasoning as the trainee undergoes his training activities. With the schools succeeding in this purpose, the ability of the HRD manager is to understand and interpret knowledge is enhanced. It must be for this reason that training and development has become part of an education process. The trainees acquire the ability to synthesize from experience, to visualize relationships, and to think logically.

It is in the light of the foregoing that this study on research-based pre-employment interventions for business and management students as it explores the common practices of the industries in recruitment, selection, and placement of applicants and job hunters for jobs available in the labor market. Such exploration or study usually yields concrete indices or employment constructs that are often referred to as employment criteria. Thus, the study may realize this research objective and come up with a set of pre-employment initiatives and later on some interventions that may be designed for the benefit of the students.

Keywords: pre-employment, benchmarking , job requirement, employment criterion
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Title: Practices of Managing Corporate Social Responsibility: Based from the Best Food Service Establishments
Name: Dr. Maribeth G. Buenviaje

Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is a concept whereby companies integrate social and environmental concerns in their business operations and in their interaction with their stakeholders on a voluntary basis (European Commission, 2001). Business leaders of today express their companies’ commitment to social development in their core business principles and practices. One such objective is working and creating the image of a concretized organization, one which practices social responsibility. In short, business stands at the center of the mechanism that transforms societies.

Business practioners and even academicians have been striving to establish an agreed upon definition of social responsibility concept for 30 years. Davis (2001) suggested that social responsibility refers to “business decisions and actions taken for reasons at least partially beyond the firm’s direct economic or technical interest.”From social responsibility to social responsiveness by several other writers, the basic argument was that the emphasis on responsibility focused exclusively on the notion of business obligation and motivation. The business sector therefore must prove that they can meet this challenge through excellence in their productive endeavor and a responsible social orientation in all their affairs.

The food service industry appears to be the forefront of business and is equally challenged to discharge of its social responsibility practices. The restaurant industry is one of the few remaining fields which an individual can enter into with a relatively small capital investment and by a combination of ability and hard work, to achieve its ultimate success. However, despite its size, they are not excuse to practice social responsibility as they too serve people and the needs and rights of the people are to be addressed. This study focused on Carroll’s pyramid of social responsibility (1999) which includes economic responsibility inferring the desire of the company to become profitable; legal responsibility, meaning that every company should be a law-abiding entity; ethical responsibility referring the company’s obligation to do what is right, just and favorable; and finally, philanthropic responsibility, contributing resources to the community. In keeping with these responsibilities, businessmen shall recognize in their decision-making, the interest of the general public and realize that they are utilizing to an important degree the nation’s resources.

It was the interest of the researchers to look into the responsiveness of food service establishments (CLASSIFIED AS a-La Carte and has its business permit operations.) on CSR practices whereby results will become input to the conceptualization of the researcher’s own model of social responsibility activities.

This study determines the extent of adherence of food service establishments in the imperatives of corporate social responsibility, their problems encountered and comparison on the perceptions of the managers, employees and customers. Towards the end, the researchers will propose a plan to develop commitment to implement corporate social responsibility among food service establishments in Batangas province.

Keywords: practices, corporate social responsibility, food service
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Name: Anabella G. Valdez

The physico-chemical and microbiological characteristics of ube powder from kinampay and ubing-ube varieties were studied after processing and during storage at ordinary condition or at room temperature using polyethylene as the primary package.

The ube powder had a water activity value range of 0.208 – 0.277. The rehydration ratio and volume increase ratio significantly decreased on storage from 5.5 – 4.0 and 3.75 – 3.54 respectively. The purple color of the ube powder became lighter and the ube aroma is still perceptible after one year of storage of the packed ube powder. The proximate composition (crude protein, crude fat, crude ash, and moisture) did not vary significantly after one year of storage.

The ube powder from the two ube varieties had low microbial load (yeast and molds count and aerobic or total plate count) until the end of storage study due to proper processing methods, appropriate packaging, and storage conditions employed.

The ube powder has a shelf life of one year using polyethylene and corrugated paper as the primary and secondary package respectively, stored at ordinary condition/room temperature.

Keywords: ube powder, rehydration ratio, volume increase ratio, kinampay
Title: Growth Performance of the Sea Urchin, Tripneustes gratilla in Cages Under La Union Condition, Philippines
Name: Jaime I. Manuel, Jr., Valentino V. Prado, Enone V. Tepait, Rogelio M.Estacio, Gerry N. Galvez and Richard N. Rivera

Grow-out culture of the Sea Urchin, Tripneustes gratilla was done to establish its growth performance. Specific growth rate was compared as to the cage material used and, gonad yield according to lunar cycle was determined.

T. gratilla attained sexual maturity after one (1) month of culture. Nevertheless, no significant differences exist on the size and specific growth rates of the organisms reared either in plastic or in knotted net cages.

The test diameter (TD) and the culture period can be expressed in a simple relationship as follows: TD = 61.8763 + 0.1442 (culture days); r2 =0.98 for knotted net enclosure, and TD = 61.7228 + 0.1667 (culture days); r2 = 0.94 for plastic net enclosure.

Gonad weight according to lunar cycle showed significant differences. Survival rate is higher in plastic cages hence recommended for use in sea urchin culture.

Keywords: sea urchin, mariculture, cage culture, urchin growth performance

Seaweed flakes was developed using kappaphycus or eucheuma spp. The research was conducted at the Don Mariano Mariano Marcos Memorial State University, North La Union Campus-Fisheries Research & Training Institute, Balaoan, La Union. These seaweeds are luxuriantly grown in most coastal areas in the Philippines which prompted the researchers to formulate a product from said seaweeds that could provide higher iodine content, easy processing, and lesser cost of inputs and with multi-uses in food processing.

The process of making seaweed flakes was much shorter, easier and with low cost of inputs. Bleached seaweeds were washed thoroughly, soaked in water, boiled in water, blended, poured in molders, sun-dried and packed in plastic bags.
The processed seaweed flakes was subjected to nutrition facts analysis and acceptability tests to the Department of Science and Technology – Food and Nutrition Research Institute and to the DMMMSU Trained Panelists, respectively. Based on the analyses of the prepared 125 grams product, it has 80% iodine 4% calcium, 6 grams iron, 2g carbohydrates and 40mg sodium. The processed products which included seaweed ice cream, gelatin delight, maja special, siomai, shanghai, DMMMSU maki and fish roll using seaweed flakes were found to be highly acceptable by the trained panelists of DMMMSU.

The product was used as main ingredient in the preparation of seaweed candies, seaweed ice cream, seaweed ice candy, maja and gelatin; as thickener in soups, meat , vegetable dishes and fish viands; as wrapper for lumpiang shanghai, siomai, fish rolls, suman, turon and maki (instead of using nori) and as extender in halayang ube, buco pandan, etc. It is also being used in making seaweed bath soap.

Seaweed flakes was termed wonder product of the evaluators during the 16th annual Zonal commodity R&D Symposium for Fisheries held at Bulwagan 2, Balanga City, Bataan on November 24-25, 2011 with its multi-uses which is indispensable for every kitchen to provide iodine enriched, nutritious and healthy food for the family.

The product has applied for Intellectual Property Rights with application number 12008000131.


The study determined the status of the existing operations of the Don Mariano Marcos Memorial State University Mid La Union Campus (DMMMSU-MLUC) Research Unit as a basis in developing the Research Information and Management System (RIMS). The study made use of descriptive and applied research design. It also utilized the Rapid Application Development (RAD). Survey questionnaires – PIECES and SUMI -- were the main tools in gathering data. Findings showed that all the indicators namely performance, information, economics, control, efficiency and service were perceived as constraints. As a result, the RIMS was conceived and developed. The RIMS was found to be highly usable.

Keywords: Research Information and Management System (RIMS), PIECES, System Development, RAD, SUMI

This study was undertaken to find out the existing problems and prospects among the ten (10) higher education institutions offering Criminology Education in Region IX during the School Year 2005-2006.

A descriptive-survey method on the conditions of higher education institutions offering Criminology Education utilizing the modified questionnaire on the provisions of operation standard set by the Commission on Higher Education was used. There were 469 respondents. Ten were administrators; while 106 were faculty members and 353 student respondents. The result of the study revealed that majority of those interested in Criminology both in teaching and administration were matured married males. Most of the administrators were inexperienced master’s degree holder while the faculty with baccalaureate degree shared a higher percentage among the teaching staff and were also inexperience. There were more private schools that offer criminology program than public school while most of those were still in a college status and were situated in the urban area.

The result of the study revealed that administrators of public and private higher education institutions offering Criminology encountered occasional operational problems while the faculty generally seldom encountered operational problems in all areas expect in research and publications were they both also encountered occasional problems. Students of both public and private HEI’s seldom encountered operational problems. However in the public HEI, occasional problems were experienced in library, physical facilities and equipment, research and publications, instructional standards.

The result of the study revealed that problems encountered by administrators, faculty and students of Criminology Education differed significantly in all eight areas of operation. Problems encountered by the public and private faculty differed significantly in all areas of operation except in faculty and curriculum. However for the students, it differed significantly in all areas of operation.

There was a very strong agreement among the administrators in the development prospects. Majority of the public and private HEI faculty very strongly agreed with development prospects. However, there was a strong agreement found in prospects for research and publications. Both public and private HEI students strongly agreed with development prospects for criminology education in all eight areas.

Criminology Education administrators and faculty of public and private HEI’s should collaborate with administrative efforts at addressing occasional problems in research and publications, while introducing the importance of research in their class.

Keywords: Criminology Education, Higher Education Institutions (HEI’s), its problems and prospects.
Title: Compliance of Lyceum of the Philippines University Accredited Boarding Houses: Basis for a Proposed Plan of Action
Name: Dr. Alex Ylagan, Billy Vergel Catibog

This study determines the compliance of boarding houses accredited by Lyceum of the Philippines University. More specifically, this paper presents the student boarders profile variables, boarding houses’ compliance to give students better facilities and proposes a plan of action to improve the operation of accredited boarding houses.

The researchers used the descriptive method to determine the compliance of LPU accredited boarding houses. The respondents were composed of 50 students at the accredited boarding houses in Kumintang Ibaba, Batangas City.

Based from the findings, the study found out that there are only few students who are staying at the accredited boarding house despite the recommendation of the Office of Student Affairs. Moreover, accredited boarding houses in LPU complied very much with the following: there is a sticker identifying their dorm as an accredited boarding house, are well-maintained and their dormitory rules are properly discussed to ensure better services. On the other hand, boarders suggested that there is a need for a doorbell outside the gate to wake up or make a signal to the owner if ever one boarder was locked.

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Title: An Industry Analysis on Causal Variables in Determining Relational Outcomes
Name: Mr. Elbert Bryan R. Vidal, MBA Faculty Member

Marketing literature purports the importance of developing and maintaining enduring relationships with customers of businesses. All strategies and initiatives carried out by firms in doing these activities are encapsulated in what is termed as relationship marketing (RM). Relationship marketing is anchored on two constructs or aims; customer loyalty and (positive) word of mouth (Thurau, 2000). In this research, these two constructs are termed as relational outcomes and discovering what factors really affects customer loyalty and word of mouth is a must for Philippine industries so that they can realign their operations and service delivery to yield more from their customers. This research, which expounds Thurao, Gwimmer and Gremler’s research on relationship quality paradigm aims to find out the causal variables that affect relational outcomes.

Specifically, it is aimed at these objectives; determine the extent of relational outcomes, as measured by customer loyalty and word of mouth engagement across different industry types, determine the level of importance respondents give to relational demography across the different industry types, test significant relationship between relationship benefits and relational outcomes and conceptualize a model of relationship marketing which will be generally applicable to service industries in the Philippines.

Based on the findings of the research, it appears that relational outcomes are better achieved when service establishments provide confidence benefits to their clients or customers. The study indicates that service establishments often provide confidence and social benefits to their customers who are correlated with customer loyalty and word of mouth. However, although there is also a statistical correlation between special treatment benefits and relational outcomes, it is still a rarity that business establishments provide special treatment benefits to their customers. This proves that the human element in service delivery is the center of cultivating these relationship benefits. Service providers need to be experts in their fields for them to effectively provide confidence benefits to their customers. The study proposed an Integrative Model for Relationship Marketing for Service Business Establishments in the Philippines.

Keywords: industry analysis, casual variables, relational outcomes

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