E-International Scientific Research Journal Consortium

World Electronic Journals Impact Factor

E-International Scientific Research Journal

Title: Cover Page
Name: Cecilia C. Villamor
Ginger, Zingiber officinales Rosc. of the family Zingiberaceae is an important plant, valued all over the world as a spice and medicine. The Don Mariano Marcos Memorial State University, in its quest to help the government in sustaining food security, has embarked on initial efforts on helping the development of the local ginger industry. Observations indicate that lack of healthy planting materials limit expansion of ginger production. One method of producing healthy planting stock is by tissue culture. This technique has been used as a tool for propagation of many crop plant species and is increasingly important for commercial propagation. A rapid micropropagation protocol for ginger, (Zingiber officinale Roscoe), an important medicinal plant for the treatment of of various ailments such as colds and flu, cardiovascular disease, and indigestion, among others, was established. The emerging rhizome bud, measuring about 2 mm was used as explants. Nitrogen in the form of KNO3 significantly improved proliferation rate of ginger in vitro, in both full and half strength media. Leaf formation/production was better in media with NH4NO3. Root formation was significantly better in half strength media with KNO3. Benzyl adenine was significantly better than kinetin in improving the performance of ginger cultures in vitro. Addition of 4-6 mg/li benzyl adenine improved shoot proliferation of cultures in vitro. The Murashige and Skoog’s (MS) basal nutrient media with KNO3, as source of nitrogen is recommended for rapid multiplication rate of planting materials of ginger. Addition of 4 mg/li benzyl adenine is likewise recommended for better shoot proliferation of in vitro cultures of ginger.
Keywords: ginger, Zingiber officinale R., micropropagation, media strength, nitrogen source
Title: Perception in Chemistry of Secondary Students
Name: Reynante E. Autida
The purpose of this research was to examine the perception in chemistry of third year high school students. This paper discussed the perceptions in chemistry, chemists, chemistry jobs, chemistry experiments, chemicals and chemical industries; assessed whether the perceptions of students were related to gender and ethnicity; elicited the common words associated with ‘chemistry’; and identified the sources of perceptions of students. The result of the study has implications on chemistry education as well as posing challenges to chemistry teachers. Results show that majority of the 354 students surveyed have positive perception towards chemistry and it had been shown that some of these views were affected by gender and ethnicity of the students. With regards to the words associated with ‘chemistry’, chemical(s), matter, and experiment(s) or laboratory experiment(s) topped the list. While the most common sources of information regarding chemistry were the teachers, books, the internet, national/local TV reports, and magazines/periodicals.
Keywords: chemistry perceptions, chemistry attitudes, chemistry views, chemistry perspectives
Name: Facundo B. Asia, Joji Grace C. Villamor and Jogel C. Faylogna
Somatic growth (wet weight and equatorial and polar test diameters), gonad growth (gonadosomatic index) and gonad quality (color and granularity) of the sea urchin T. gratilla fed prepared diets were studied in vitro using plastic basins for a period of four months. The study consisted of three treatments, replicated thrice and arranged in CRD as follows: I-Fresh Sargassum sp. (control), II-Dried pellets, and III-Fresh Extruded pellets. The dried and fresh extruded pellets were mainly of Sargassum sp. with 6.0% binder (corn starch and gelatin). No significant variations were observed in the somatic growth of T. gratilla among the different feeding treatments. Highest growth rates were observed during the first culture month decreasing towards the end of the study. The fresh natural food gave better gonadosomatic index and gonad color than the prepared diets but not for granularity. First spawning was observed at about 1.5 culture months. Observed water parameters were within the favorable ranges for growth and survival of T. gratilla. The successful introduction of prepared diets for T. gratilla opens the possibility of incorporating gonad color enhancers such as carotenoids in the diet that improves the quality of the organism for market and consumption. This necessitates further studies specifically using locally available pigment sources like tomato, squash, yellow corn and the like. The study likewise demonstrated the viability of land-based culture of the organism using both the fresh natural food and prepared diets. This will be important in sustaining a year-round harvest and possible broodstock source for hatchery and seed stock production.
Keywords: Tripneustes gratilla, prepared diet, somatic growth, gonad growth and quality
Title: 2 in 1 plus MARICULTURE FARMING SYSTEM ( A Livelihood Management Strategy for Coastal Families )
Name: Valentino V. Prado, Ida C. Junio, Enone V. Tepait, Gerry N. Galvez, Lourdes P. Bisco and Richard N. Rivera
The potential of seafarming both seaweed and sea urchin in a 200 sq.m. coastal space was explored. Coined as 2 in 1plus mariculture farming system, it encourages family households to work together in a system of production and processing aimed at optimizing coastal family productivity. The mariculture system was developed through the integration of several experimental/ demofarm results and local practices on the culture and processing of seaweed and sea urchin under La Union condition. Return on expenses of respective technologies was presented. Results show that the integrated mariculture farming system maximizes the use of limited culture area and boosts productivity of a family. It can serve as an alternative source of livelihood producing food commodities for local market with export potential. Direct benefit is a return on expenses of 87 and 67% for fresh seaweed and sea urchin respectively, and about 14 to 65% of any product development a family would undertake, as a value-added initiative. A family that works together within the system enhances social progression while promoting family entrepreneurship, or to community in general. Sustained collaboration and involvement of key players in coastal fisheries management is sought for successful family or community-based adoption of the 2 in 1plus mariculture farming system.
Keywords: mariculture, seaweed, sea urchin, farming system, processing On the other hand, world production of sea urchin, which is a high value fisheries commodity declined from 119,647mt fresh weight in 1995, to only 89,918mt in 1998. Similarly, the country’s production dropped from 1,100mt fresh weight in 1992, to only 380mt in 1998. Due to overexploitation, the collapse of the fishery resulted to the loss of a multi-million pesos fisheries which is the livelihood source of many coastal families (Juinio-Meñez, 2000). Concerned with status of the resource, the UP-MSI under the support of the DA-BAR initiated various initiatives to recover the sea urchin fisheries from its collapse (Juinio-Meñez, 2000; Juinio-Menez et al, 2005). Fisheries institutions and line agencies e.g. SUC’s, DA-BFAR in northern Ilocos region also conducted various trials to optimize production, and such initiatives resulted to the development of alternative source of livelihood at present (Malano,1981, Sanidad et.al 2003, BFAR undated). Prado and Tepait (2006) showed that following their stock size sea urchin can be harvested in about two months of culture. Juvenile wildstocks were gathered and cultured in cages, since natural recruitment was already observed in Balaoan waters (Prado and Galvez, 2008) and in other areas of the Ilocos (Bangi, HG et al 2007). Based on the foregoing, maximizing productivity of a coastal family remained a challenge. The present farming practices on the seaweed and sea urchin culture are taken separately thus occupy wider coastal space. With such, and the increasing number of fishermen in seafarming these commodities pause an imminent source of conflict on culture space in the future. By maximizing the use of a limited space in culturing the two commodities in an specific area is a management strategy to minimize the possible impact of the above scenario. Likewise, the involvement of household members in a technology will not only result to economic productivity but also strengthens social relationships among household members hence, this paper.
Name: Valentino V. Prado, Gerry N. Galvez and Richard Rivera
Some aspects on the population structure of Sea Urchin, T. gratilla along the coasts of Balaoan, La Union, Philippines was determined. A two 2m x 50m belt transect are laid every sampling period from June 2009 to April 2010, and in situ determination of the total number of organism and its corresponding size was made. Recruits dominated the wildstock population year-round. Immature sea urchin, or those with below 6cm size comprised about 91% of the population. A bimodal distribution was noted. Meanwhile, the average density structure of the population is very low despite previous efforts to improve the current status of the organism at sustainable basis. A community policy of not catching sea urchin below the 7cm size limit shall be adopted by local fishermen to ensure significant quantity of parent stock in the wild population.
Keywords: sea urchin. size composition/structure, population density Coastal farming of T. gratilla boosted marginal fishermen’s productivity and economic status in Bolinao, Pangasinan; Balaoan and City of San Fernando, La Union and other coastal areas of Ilocos Region. In Balaoan alone, sea urchin were transferred from Nalvo, Santa Maria, Ilocos Sur and stocked in steel cages in 2002. This was an initial collaborative undertaking of the Local Government Unit of Balaoan, La Union and Don Mariano Marcos Mem. State University in establishing a “reproductive reserve” in the area, and such effort was the preliminary step to rehabilitate and enhance wildstock population of sea urchin in Balaoan waters (Prado and Galvez, 2008). After which, the Department of Agriculture – Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources and other line agencies, including the Holcim Phils. implemented and supported livelihood strategies for sea urchin farming by the local fishermen. To date, urchin juveniles abound supporting massive cage culture production of the organism. It shall be noted here that this resource is abundant before its apparent decline in the 90’s in the area. The culture of sea urchin in steel cages gave hope for coastal dwellers to increase coastal productivity and income of fishers. Prado and Tepait (2006) showed that local market size sea urchin can be obtained in two-three months culture following their stock size and proper culture management. Good growth performance of sea urchin in Ilocos Sur have also been found earlier (Sanidad, et al, 2003), indicating sea urchin as sustainable livelihood opportunity in the region. Nevertheless, there is no sufficient or detailed study on the juvenile recruitment of spawning population of sea urchin in La Union since the collapse of this resource. With the enhancement strategies being undertaken, there are prospects of expanding livelihood opportunities for fisherfolks. A need to understand the dynamics of the sea urchin wildstock population is a necessity for a resource management options to be developed in the area, hence this study.
Title: The Effect of Religion toward Moral Values of College Students in locos Sur, Philippines
Name: Fr. Damianus Abun, SVD, MBA, PhD (Researcher), Riza Cajindos, MAME (Statistician)
The study is to determine the effect of religion toward morality of College students in Ilocos Sur. The main questions are: Is there any relationship between religion and morality? Does religious awareness affect the level of morality of students? The researcher traced literature and related studies on the topic. Both related literature and studies had no common agreement whether religion affect morality or two are separate entity. Other literature's and studies argued that religion affect morality, while others argues that religion has no relationship with morality. Morality exists without religion.

In order to carry out this research, a descriptive research method was applied and questionnaires were used to gather the data. The data were tabulated and interpreted using different statistical tool such as the frequency count which is to categorize the respondent according to school, gender and religion, and the weighted mean was to determine the level of religious awareness and practices and moral values of the students. The One-way of Analysis of F-test (ANOVA) was used to determine the differences on the effect of religion on morality between religions and the Pearson’s r was used to determine the correlation between religion and morality, religious awareness and morality. Finally, multiple regression analysis was used the effect and the magnitude of the effect of religion and religious awareness toward morality.

After the researcher investigated the main question above using proper statistical instrument, it is found that both: religion and morality are not two separate entity, both are connected. Religion and religious awareness affect the morality. The higher the level of religious awareness, the higher the morality awareness of students is. Thus the study dismisses the argument that religion has not relationship with morality. The hypotheses of the study that there is no significant relationship between religion and morality, no significant relationship between religious awareness and morality, no effect of religious awareness toward morality are denied. While the hypothesis that there is no significant different between religions and morality is accepted. It means that whatever religion a student has, he has the level of morality as other students of other religions, one is not better than the other.

Thus the study recommends the following:

1. Recommendation to the parents. Parents should promote religious awareness to their children at home by regularly praying together, attending worship, listening to spiritual reflections and reading the bible and other religious activities.

2. Recommendation to school. It is not enough to teach religion subject but to live it is important. Thus, the school should promote religious awareness by introducing religious activities in the school campus such as prayer, worship, bible reading and meditations and other religious activities that increase religious awareness of the students. Schools also need to have religion subjects, whatever religion in which students belong to. Religion subject is not only for private schools but also for public schools or government owned schools.

3. Recommendation to the students. Religious awareness is not something that only comes from outside but it should come from within. To improve their religious awareness, they should practice and strengthen their faith by prayer, worshiping, attending worship regularly and reading the bible as a source spiritual inspiration for daily living.

4. Ethical environment in which students/children are growing should be given attention by the parents and the school. In that case, home where students spend most of their time should be the first place where students learn how to behave ethically, learn how to love other people, to be kind, to be honest. School is also mandated to establish ethical environment by initiating ethical activities to promote and increase moral awareness of the students.
Keywords: Religion, morality, religious awareness, moral awareness
Name: Terfa Kahaga Anjov Ph.D and Afaor Dorothy Nguemo
Democracy appears to be the most acceptable form of governance in the world today. In Nigeria, there seems to be a wide gap between its theory and practice. Nigeria openly declares that she is being guided by the Rule of Law, transparency and popular participation in governance, but there are glaring incidences of corruption, oppression, and various forms of injustices. Are the principles of democracy congenial to ethics values? If they are, why are Nigerian politicians who are operating democratic style of governance do not reflect these democratic values in their actions and words? The objectives of this study are; to examine the relationship that exists between ethics and democracy, to examine whether Nigerian politicians allow themselves to be guided by the ethics of politics and democracy. The study adopts the socio-ethical method to critically analyze the relationship between ethics and the practice of democracy. The data for analysis is collated through the use of print materials and questionnaire for personal interview of political stakeholders. There is no interactive effect of ethics on the practice of democracy in Nigeria and that Nigerians have thrown away ethical values inherent in the concept of democracy. The study concludes that there is no mutual relationship between ethics and democracy in Nigeria, but it can be established if Nigerians understand that ethical norms are catalysts for the implementation of the principles of democracy especially for a developing nation like Nigeria.
Keywords: Democracy, Corruption, Ethics, Development, Governance, Values
Name: Zonia Tan-Florendo
Instructional materials along Science and Technology (EST) can enhance the English proficiency of students pursuing science/ technology courses. Using documentary analysis, this study determined that the level of performance in English of Bachelor of Science in Electro- mechanical Technology (BSEMT) students of Don Mariano Marcos Memorial State University (DMMMSU) was fair. Likewise, by using interview schedule, this study found out that EST- oriented instructional materials in the College of Technology were fairly available and not adequate. Thus, the researcher developed the EST-oriented Worktext in Writing in the Discipline. The researcher concluded that the students did not developed adequate skills or expertise in putting the rules and structures of writing into practice; that the preparation of the EST-oriented worktext is necessary; and that the EST-oriented “Worktext in Writing in the Discipline” is an appropriate and relevant instructional material.
Keywords: English for Science and Technology (EST), instructional material, worktext, Writing in the Discipline
Title: Criminology Education Among Higher Education Institutions(HEI’s) In Region IX, Mindanao, Philippines: Problems And Prospects
This study was undertaken to find out the existing problems and prospects among the ten (10) higher education institutions offering Criminology Education in Region IX during the School Year 2005-2006. A descriptive-survey method on the conditions of higher education institutions offering Criminology Education utilizing the modified questionnaire on the provisions of operation standard set by the Commission on Higher Education was used. There were 469 respondents. Ten were administrators; while 106 were faculty members and 353 student respondents. The result of the study revealed that majority of those interested in Criminology both in teaching and administration were matured married males. Most of the administrators were inexperienced master’s degree holder while the faculty with baccalaureate degree shared a higher percentage among the teaching staff and were also inexperience. There were more private schools that offer criminology program than public school while most of those were still in a college status and were situated in the urban area. The result of the study revealed that administrators of public and private higher education institutions offering Criminology encountered occasional operational problems while the faculty generally seldom encountered operational problems in all areas expect in research and publications were they both also encountered occasional problems. Students of both public and private HEI’s seldom encountered operational problems. However in the public HEI, occasional problems were experienced in library, physical facilities and equipment, research and publications, instructional standards. The result of the study revealed that problems encountered by administrators, faculty and students of Criminology Education differed significantly in all eight areas of operation. Problems encountered by the public and private faculty differed significantly in all areas of operation except in faculty and curriculum. However for the students, it differed significantly in all areas of operation. There was a very strong agreement among the administrators in the development prospects. Majority of the public and private HEI faculty very strongly agreed with development prospects. However, there was a strong agreement found in prospects for research and publications. Both public and private HEI students strongly agreed with development prospects for criminology education in all eight areas. Criminology Education administrators and faculty of public and private HEI’s should collaborate with administrative efforts at addressing occasional problems in research and publications, while introducing the importance of research in their class.
Keywords: Criminology Education, Higher Education Institutions (HEI’s), its problems and prospects.
Title: Women Entrepreneurs In Pangasinan: Their Motivations and Gains”
Name: Cristeta C. Dulos
The study determined the socio-economic profile, the motivations, type of enterprises, and operational activities that the women entrepreneurs are involved in, the gains they derived from entrepreneurship and the problems they encounter in the operation of their business. Considered were 105 women entrepreneurs chosen from purposive sampling. Results show that the respondents have an average age of 49.60, married, have elementary education, with at least five children and a mean family income of P267, 180.11.Few have skills training, and assistance from government and non-government agencies is limited. The respondents are personally more than economically or socially motivated to succeed in their business. Their enterprise, mostly family-owned and double-product business have an average start capital of P11, 219.40.The major operational activities as managers are decision-making shared with the husband, and managerial functions like planning, supervision, production, marketing, accounting, control, monitoring and evaluation. The respondents are satisfied in their managerial functions, however, the management performance of those engaged in bagoong industry significantly differs from those engaged in other industries. Education and other sources of income significantly influence the economic gains derived from the business venture. Generally, the respondents are satisfied with their quality of life. Lack of capital, stiff product competition and high costs of production are the most pressing problems encountered.
Keywords: entrepreneurship, motivation, gains, enterprise, quality of life, self-satisfaction, Income, managerial skills
Title: Level III Accredited Teacher Education Programs of State Universities and Colleges in Region I: A Case Study
Name: Adelina D. Ancheta
This study sought to determine the status and outcome of Level III Accredited Teacher Education Programs of State Universities and College in Region I in terms of students, research, extension-community involvement, production and administrative support system, best practices along the various functions of the university, issues and problems on accreditation encountered by the Level III accredited teacher education programs, policy initiatives in terms of dissemination, promotion and sustainability of the program, policy implications for further development. It is highly recommended that the higher education institutions must continue to implement government policies of maintaining quality education through accreditation and must make accreditation status a requirement in qualifying for financial support, continuity of accreditation as a basis to establish center of development, center of excellence and institution of specific policies on recognition and professionalism of faculty, instructional management, and administrative support for effective instruction, dynamic research and extension.
Keywords: teacher education program, accreditation, state university, development, research, extension
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Name: Assist. Prof. Mariana Pavlova
Digital games have been very popular for several decades and now play a major part in most young people’s lives. Like many technologies, those supporting virtual worlds seem to be ahead of the learning theories on how best to use them. Though digital games are starting to be used for education in other countries, here in Bulgaria educators are still ignoring the learning potentials of gaming. The widespread stereotype is that games are a waste of time and many educators are sceptical about their effects on learners.
Keywords: situational learning, digital games, education, game-related activities

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